* All entries before 10,000 BC are in years Before Present (BP). Most dates are approximate, or rounded up, and may be adjusted as new discoveries come to light.
* For other abbreviations, see end of Chronology.
* Sources, including TV programmes, books and internet sites follow the list of abbreviations.
* LATEST UPDATE: July 2014
every 500 million years:
Approximate period in which super continents have formed and broken apart (In Our Time: The Geological Formation Of Britain, Radio 4, 22/10/09).
237 m yrs:
Sun orbits our galaxy.
30 m yrs:
Solar system passes through densest - and most dangerous, for collisions - part of our galaxy (Space, BBC1, 29/7/2001).
Average frequency at which pole reversals occur. Process of reversal can take between 1,000 and 10,000 years (Wikipedia).
Period between maximum and minimum ellipticity of Earth Orbit (Milankovitch).
Stretch cycle as Earth’s orbit varies from the circular to the elliptical (DK World
Atlas, p .x), distance from the Sun varying between 92 and 95 million miles. N.b about every 110,000 years of the last 500,000 years of Earth history global temperatures have reached peaks/troughs. A further cycle whereby the Earth's orbit drifts up and down relative to the orbits of most of the other planets, esp. Jupiter (The Invariable Plane) takes around 100,000 years but the cycle relative to the Earth's present orbit is about 70,000 years. Cycles of Quaternary glaciation tend to conform to a 100,000 year cycle but changes in precession and obliquity are thought to be more significant (Wikipedia: Milankovitch cycles: the 100,000 year problem).
Cycle of variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic, or angle of tilt of Earth (J.D.Hayes et al, in Hancock, p.79 and DK World Atlas). Currently it is 23.44 degrees from vertical in a cycle of 22.1 to 24.5 and back again (Milankovitch). This tilt is in the decreasing phase of its cycle and will reach its minimum value approximately by 10,000 AD (Common Era, CE).
The Earth's 'wobble': cycle of precession of the Earth's axis, influenced by the gravitational pull of the larger planets, but controlled by the Moon (Frozen Earth, p.78). Thus Polaris will eventually cease to be the Pole Star (to be replaced by Vega) before returning to its present position after the above period of time.
The Earth's orbit is elliptical, so during part of the year it is further away from the Sun than at the opposite time. Also the axis tilts by 23 and a half degrees (though this has not always been the case and the cause of it the subject of speculation; at the moment the angle is decreasing almost imperceptibly) so there is a twice yearly switch between perihelion (when the northern hemisphere is tilted towards and is at closest proximity to the sun) and aphelion (when it tilts away and is at its greatest distance), currently 4th January and early July. Therefore, present European winters would be a lot colder if these were reversed (Smith, p.188)......and summers hotter. Half way through this cycle the northern hemisphere, now tilting away from the sun, shall experience its shortest day on the solstice of June 21st.
5730 +/- 40 years: Half-life of Carbon 14, used to measure age of relatively recent remains up to about 150 years ago.
2160 yrs: Earth's axis shifts about one degree every 72 years, giving rise to a slow transition of the Sun's position at the beginning of the vernal (spring) equinox each year. Measured in the constellations of the ecliptic - the Zodiacal ones - which occupy 30 degrees each - this translates into a different one of the twelve every 72 x 30, i.e. 2160 years. There is some disagreement over the calculation as to when a sign is entered and left. For a substantial part of this Chronology the ages are those of Gemini, Cancer, Taurus, Aries and Pisces.
1500 yrs+/- 500 yrs: Solar-driven global climate cycle hypothesis developed by Dansgaard, Oeschger and Lorius. Awarded Tyler prize in 1996 for discovering regular pattern of warming/cooling. E.g. 900 AD-1300 AD =Medieval warming.
every 210 and 87 years: Solar cycles, related to the shorter sunspot cycle (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research). In combination, these could produce a 1,470 cycle (see every 1500 years, above).
Cycle of northerly and southerly monthly extremes of lunar declination. This is also the 223 month 'Saros' cycle after which the pattern of lunar eclipses repeats.
Maximum/minimum Sunspot cycle.
(N.B. Billion = American usage, i.e. 1,000 million):
13.82 BP: Revised age of the Universe based on new European Planck Telescope data (BBC website, 21/3/13. Matter now 31.7% (4.9% matter, 26.8% dark matter), dark energy 68.3%.
13b BP: Est. age of Universe based on Cepheid variables measured by Wendy Freedman (National Geographic, Sept 2001).
12b BP: Est. age of universe, post-Hubble (BBC Horizon, 2/00).
10b BP: Oldest stars (Rees, M. Just Six Numbers)
4.6b BP: Estimated age of the Earth, 2014. Most of the present day surface only dates back a few hundred million years due to plate tectonics, etc.
4.55b BP: Oldest meteoritic fragment (that fell on Mexico in 1967)= c.4,566 m. yrs old, therefore Earth c.4550 million years old (Earth’s Story, BBC2, 1/11/98.) 4,567,000,000 yrs also age of solar system (Stargazing, BBC January 2013).
4.4b BP: Age of zircon crystal found in Western Australia in 2014, the oldest surviving fragment of the Earth's crust discovered so far (BBC website, 24/2/2014).
4.3b BP: Approximate age of highland Moon rocks (Wilkinson, p.129).
4b BP: Analysis of Martian dust suggests the planet lost its magnetic field by this time (Magnetic Flip, Channel 4 11/5/03). Environment “watery” before this era (ESA Mars Mission). Then volcanic/sulphurous.
4b BP: Earth’s oldest rock, as dated by Zircon (National Geographic, Sept 2001).
3.2b BP: Late bombardment of Moon according to -Argon 40 dating of Apollo mission rocks, peaking at 3.2 billion years BP. (Science Daily March 29 2000, Internet.) Evidence that the Borealis Crater on Mars was formed by a massive object 2000 km in diameter... http://www.scientificpsychic.com/etc/timeline/timeline.html
See next 500 m y BP.
3.1b BP: Approximate age of Mare (basalt) Moon rocks (Wilkinson, John. Probing The New Solar System, p.129).
2.200m BP: Early Proterozoic Ice Ages. Evidence from South Africa (MacDougall, pp142-)
2-3b BP: Formation of pebbles on alluvial fan on Mars - NASA'a Curiosity Rover, May, 2013.
3,750m BP: Oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth ? Via Isua in Greenland (Gould, Stephen Jay Wonderful Life, p.57). Disputed in New Scientist 22/2/03 pp 28-31; other scientists think this rock metamorphosed. See 2,700 m.y. BP.
3,500m BP: Oldest signs of life found in fossils (Gould, Wonderful Life, p.58). About this time Martian environment became less volcanic; more like today (ESA).
2,700m BP: General agreement over earliest fossilised life (Cyanobacteria). See also 1,900 my BP.
85m BP: Supercontinent Rodinia. Breaks up about 750m years BP and in 2013 a trace - Mauritia - is found, formerly a sliver between India and Madagascar.
1,900m BP: Evidence of early life in fossils of Gunflint Chert, Ontario. See also 3,700 my BP and 2,700 my BP. (New Scientist, 22/2/03 pp 28-31).
800 m BP: Evidence of true polar wander? http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S15/64/72A37/index.xml?section=newsreleases (2006).
570m BP: Earth's oceans may all have frozen several times (Nature December 1998) - tipped inclination of the Earth to 66.5 degrees? (Smith, p.183).
650m BP: Drop stones in Namibia suggest “Snowball Earth”? Only life - cyanobacteria and blue-green algae. Then after 10 million yrs without rain, volcanoes increase atmospheric CO2 to 10%. Then storms; rapid thaw (Horizon, 22/2/01).
600m BP: Fossilised excreta of worms dated to, Hebrides. Earliest evidence of gut (Times, 11/12/97.)
560m BP: “Sheep farmer in Australia discovers oldest vertebrate fossil” - BBC website news 24/10/03 (30 my older than previous contender from China).
534m BP: The whole of Australia rotated 90 degrees, North America moves rapidly north according to paleomagnetic evidence, say Caltech's Kirschvink (Science, 25/9/1997); could be seen as crustal displacement with poles moving to the Equator.
530m BP: Precambrian ‘explosion’ of life - for about 15million yrs (Caltech ‘97).
520m BP: Maotianshan Shales record pre-Burgess Shale assemblage of Cambrian fauna, containing examples of most arthropod ancestors. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maotianshan_Shales
500m BP: Another peak of activity in the bombardment of the Moon according to dating of Apollo rocks, this time being of smaller material. See previous peak of 3.2 Billion BP.
450m BP: Ordovician; magnetic orientation of rocks suggest North Africa over South Pole? In the 1960's, scientists discovered signs of glaciation in the Sahara which support the finding (Feuerbacher, p.8).
440m BP: England/Scotland ocean - sea creatures (Earth’s Story).
439m BP: Ordovician-Silurian extinction, killing 60% of marine genera. Caused by drop, then rise in sea levels as glaciers formed/melted? (Siegel).
400m BP: Global glaciation/ice age.
364m BP: Late Devonian extinction, cause unknown, killing 22% of marine genera (Siegel) and 50% of all life on Earth.
300m BP: Permo-Carboniferous Ice Age covering S. Pole in Gondwanaland - S. Africa, Australia, India (Earth’s Story, also MacDougall p.142) lasting 60 m. years. Coincides with all-time low CO2 levels.
245m BP: Permian period (DK UVE).
270m BP: Oldest surviving oceanic crust: the eastern Mediterranean, the remains of the Tethys Sea.
252m BP: Lava floods out of Siberian traps, resulting in a spike of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Rapid global warming, and acidification of the seas ensued decades later as the atmospheric dust cleared.
251m BP: Permian-Triassic extinction. Earth's worst mass extinction, (until that recently initiated by mankind), but cause uncertain (Siegel). A site off Australia's NW coast where an object about six miles across may have smashed into the Earth at this time is a candidate for the cause (Singer and Avery p.77, taken from Washington Post 14th May, 2004). 84% of marine genera perished. The only known mass extinction of insects. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1184556.stm.
214m BP: An asteroid about 3 miles across, crashed into Canada (Manicouagan crater). Produced, amongst other phenomena, layer of molten glass detected in Triassic rocks nr. Bristol (Science, 14 Nov. 2002).
199m BP: End Triassic extinction, probably caused by lava erupting from the "central Atlantic magmatic province", an event that triggered the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and possibly global warming. 52% of marine genera perished (Siegel).
200m BP: Most of the Earth's oceanic crust is about this old, with the oldest surviving being the eastern Mediterranean, the remains of the Tethys Sea, at about 270 million years old. See 'expanding Earth' theory on the Internet!
70m BP: Relatively high sea levels. Super-continent Pangea breaks up.
65.5m BP: Deccan Traps: over a a million cubic kilometres of lava poured out over central India.
65m BP: Asteroid c.7 miles diameter crashed into Yukatan Peninsula, coinciding with demise of dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period. Sea levels “fell markedly”.
55m BP: Palaeocene-Eocene ‘thermal maximum’ - North Pole “Subtropical” (BBC News Online, 7/9/04). Lasted about 100,000 years. Large undersea methane release caused explosions and mass extinctions.
According to ice cores and fossilised algae, average temperature was 20 C instead of present -1.5 C. Glomar Challenger: Rockall Ridge becomes separated from Greenland and begins sinking (Sullivan, W. Continents In Motion, MacMillan, 1974). Further sinking 40 and 15 my BP. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/12/011210163439.htm
African plate pushes into the European creating the Alps and other ranges (Science Daily 5/5/2009).
40m BP: Trend towards global cooling (In Our Time, Radio 4, 22/10/09).
35m BP: Wave of extinctions during Eocene-Oligocene transition; “sea levels again very low”; Antarctica moves over South Pole (CDE, pp.9 and 11). Evidence in Chesapeake Bay of a bolide (comet or meteorite) a few miles in diameter having gouged out a crater, nearly as deep as the Grand Canyon on impact around this time (Schoch, p.182).
30m BP: ‘Rubble pile’ meteor fireball exploded above Egyptian Sahara melting the sandstone at 1800 degs C. Similar to Tunguska event? (‘Tutankhamun Fireball’ Horizon 20/7/06).
20m BP: (Early Miocene) 12.5 mile wide crater made in Canadian Arctic's Devon Island . Prior to this fauna and flora quite different, e.g.shrews, rabbits, rhinos, birch etc., indicating milder climate similar to Minnesota &and (Schoch).
9m BP: Continuous West Antarctic Ice sheet develops.
5.8m BP: Oldest known human ancestor, Ardpithecus Ramidus Kaddaba, in Ethiopia (Species first discovered 1992).
5m BP: Panama isthmus forms - blocked ocean circulation, triggering Ice Age?
4.4m BP: Ardipithecus ramidus female, bipedal earliest human ancestor? Guardian, 1/10/09.
2.5m BP: Earth entered into most recent Ice Age (Encarta). Possibly still in it, with current interglacial. Between 2.5 and 0.9million years BP glacial-interglacial cycles occurred every 41.000 years; since 0.9 million years BP every 100,000 years due to changes in the Earth's orbit in respect of the Sun (Maslin, Global Warming p.12, Science Made Simple booklet, 2008). Earliest tools (of Homo rudolfensis) dated to around this time.
2.5m BP: Britain may still have been an island around this time (Pliocene Period) - Stringer.
BP: According to the cover article in the Dec.18th 2003 issue of Nature, a tilt of Mars' rotational axis greater than today's produced and advanced ice sheet at both poles to around 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. This subsequently melted (leaving river beds and ice deposits?) as the planet entered the current inter-glacial epoch.
2m BP: Australopithecus sediba, an erect humanoid with tiny hands, opposable thumbs and a human-shaped brain case, whose remains were discovered in a South African cave, reported in Science 8th September 2011; the best candidate so far for a missing link between apes and Homo sapiens?
1.8m BP: Skull and other bones found in Georgia are the oldest Hominids (of our Genus, Homo) discovered outside of Africa. Dmanisi people: shorter and with brains 40% smaller than typified by Homo erectus. Suggests an earlier wave of migration out of Africa (according to orthodoxy 1m BP) which may have died out or returned to the mother continent. (Independent, 9/9/09.)
10,000 BP: Pleistocene Period, when temperatures were probably 4-5 degrees C lower than at present (Wikipedia).
1.7m BP: Oldest hominid (not yet Homo sapiens) skulls found in Europe (Georgia) (Bryson, p.390).
1.3m BP: Super volcano eruption in Idaho, U.S.
900,000 BP: Pole reversal, lasting until 780,000 BP (see below). Average frequency: every 200,000 years (Magnetic Flip).
1m BP: Could humans have arrived in Britain nearly 1m yrs ago? Stone tools discovered in Happisburgh, Norfolk UK suggest this is possible (Nature/BBC News July 2010). Environmental data suggests cool temperatures. Most likely species Homo antecessor, dated to 0.8-1.2 m yrs ago in northern Spain.
900,000 BP: Range to which ice cores can yield information about climate variations (Singer and Avery, p.6). National Geographic article dated July 5th 2007 claims 800,000 BP through the 3,260 metre ice core taken from central Antarctica.
850,000 BP: Early humans of unknown species first reach Doggerland (present day North Sea), according to BBC Focus magazine, November 2012.
800,000 BP: ’Rubble pile’ believed to have ignited over huge area of SE Asia (Horizon, 20/7/06).
800,000 BP: "Earliest evidence of human footprints outside of Africa discovered in Norfolk" -Happisburgh.
780,000 BP: Last scientifically estimated major magnetic pole reversal, Brunhes Matuyama, (Magnetic Flip, op.cit, based on analysis of Hawaiian lava and metallic content of other sediments; also mentioned RI lecture 1995/6 BBC2). Hancock disagrees (see 12,500 BP) see also Wikipedia', 'Geomagnetic Reversals'.
740,000 BP: Massive volcanic eruption of Toba on Sumatra, collapsing into its own magma chamber. Forty times as severe as Tambora in 1815 (Whyte, p.79)
700,000 BP: Analysis of animal bones (butchery marks) at Westbury-sub-Mendip suggest hominid habitation 200,000 yrs earlier than Boxgrove Man. (Times, 4/6/02.)
640,000 BP: Last known major eruption of supervolcano underneath Yellowstone National Park (55 miles across) (BBC news website 11/12/13).
478,000 BP: Dating of tibia of 'Boxgrove Man' (Homo heidelbergensis), an ancestor of H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis.
500,000 BP: Scientists believe oldest and deepest ice formed in East Antarctica (Feuerbacher). 'Angian' stage of ice age affecting Britain, Thames diverted south. Also around this time, DNA divergence data indicates that the split between modern humans and Neanderthals took place.
430,000 BP: Termination V: Interglacials shortened and became warmer, allowing humans and other warm blooded creatures to thrive. Today's CO2 levels are the highest in 440,000 years ('Next Ice Age Is 15,000 Years Off", www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories 10/6/2004).
420,000 BP: A global temperature high, as measured by Vostok ice core, Antarctica (next: 330,000).
400,000 BP: Approximate age of Swanscombe (Kent) skull and associated hand axes. Hoxnian interglacial, towards the end of the Lower Paleolithic. English Channel not yet formed, but giant freshwater lake trapped south of North Sea ice periodically overflowed and flooded towards the south west (see 9,000 BC). Siberian stalactites/stalagmites record warming of around 1.5 degrees C; if global warming now was as great, trillions of tonnes of greenhouse gases would be released into the atmosphere with severe economic and environmental consequences (BBC website 22/2/2013).
400,000 BP: Neanderthals and Denisovans thought to have diverged, evolution-wise, from modern humans.
400,000 BP: End of most recent Martian ice age according to current thinking i, 26/4/2014).
350,000 BP: Neanderthals appear. (WBE)
340,000 BP: Global temperature/CO2 low as measured by Vostock ice core (next: 250,000 BP).
240,000 BP: A global temperature high, as measured by Vostock ice core (prev, 330,000 BP).
300,000 BP: Highest CO2 level until present, as measured by ice cores.
200,000 BP: Gullies in youngish Martian crater indicate flow of water since this time (i, 26/4/2014).
180,000 BP: Britain joined to France by land bridge, as at 20,000 BP.
160,000 BP: Oldest Homo Sapiens skulls found in Eastern Ethiopia (BBC website news, 11/6/03).
150,000 BP: Studies of human genetic variation reveal everyone (Sapiens) on Earth descended from one woman who lived in Africa -coalescence of mitochondrial DNA (Olson, Mapping Human History p.27). All other lines eventually became extinct. Neanderthals in Jersey at this time, land-linked to France (Stringer, pp. 104-106), but apparently not in England.
60,000 BP: No trace of humans (Neanderthals) in Britain during this period, despite pleasant climate. (Stringer, pp 103-106).
140,000 BP: Global temperature/CO2 low, as measured by Vostok ice core (next: 20,000 BP).
115,000 BP: Eemian interglacial during which temperatures were on average 2 degrees higher than at present but there were big fluctuations in less than a couple of decades (Feuerbacher, p.5).
130,000 BP:Global temperature/CO2 high, as measured by Vostok ice core (prev. see 240,000 BP). It was 4.5 degrees C warmer than today. Around this time Homo sapiens appeared.
110,000 BP: Eemian Interglacial, warm period.
127,000 BP: Termination of first recent Ice Age (Feuerbacher). Oceans slower to warm than land.
125,000 BP: Sea level fell, exposing raised beach in Barbados (Earth’s Story). Very warm period. Edinburgh Uni team (see also 82,000 and 40,000 BP) .
90,000 BP: Greening of the Sahara with lower sea levels may have allowed humans to migrate out of Africa successfully for the first time via the strait across the Persian Gulf to Aden (BBC 2 10/5/09). Genetics traces all present day races to this group.
120,000 BP: Climate in UK warmer than today - by about one degree Celsius. Hippos in Britain (excavated from foundations of buildings on Trafalgar Square - Stringer, p.110). Ice Ages followed. (Hot and Cold Night, BBC2, 30/8/99.) Camp Century core shows Ice Age begins in Greenland. Then see 75,000 BP. First ceremonial burials
115,000 BP: Start of last Ice Age (Fuerbacher). Atlantic Ocean conveyor reversed
110,000 BP: "Sudden" (over less than 400 yrs?) shift to colder climate globally. Desertification as moisture taken out of water cycle and frozen in growing ice caps/glaciers. Forests to grass, etc. (Singer and Avory p.xiv).
60,000 BP: Believed ‘modern’ humans settled in Asia (from Africa), eventually displacing Homo erectus.
93,600 BP: Speculative earth crust displacement (Flem-Aths, after Hapgood) Next see 52,600 BP, below.
93,000 BP: N. Pole, centred on Yukon, moves to Spitzbergen (Hapgood).
90,000 BP: Warmth-loving species such as Hippos, Hyaenas and Lions replaced gradually by Mammoths, Wolves, Bison etc, but tropical species gone altogether by 15,000 BP.
82,000 BP: Sea level fell again exposing raised beach on Barbados once more? (Earth’s Story).
80,000 BP: N. Pole leaves Yukon 63N 135W (Hapgood), 5,000 years later arriving over the Greenland Sea. Approx. date of contents of Banwell bone cave, N. Somerset: Arctic Fox, Wolverine, Arctic Hare but no evidence of humans. Remains of beetles in London and Oxford suggest warmer further East?
75,000 BP: N. Pole reaches the Greenland Sea 72N 10E from The Yukon (Hapgood, on www.poleshift.org/ps/PolePaths.html). Camp Century core on Greenland records major ice advance (Fuerbacher, p.3).
73,000 BP: Supervolcano Toba eruption in Indonesia, deforests and leaves ash as far away as India. Reduces human population on Earth to around 10,000 individuals. Greenland ice cores indicate that an 'ice age' was triggered, lasting for around 1,800 years (Science Daily, 23/11/2009).
70,000 BP: European Ice Age begins ? Movement of Homo Sapiens out of Africa. DNA analysis of an aboriginal human hair, donated in 1923, shows that Australia's indigenous population were first isolated around this time. This is now believed to be the first wave of African emigration (American Journal Of Human Genetics, week beginning 18th September 2011). With sea levels lower than today they would have been able to cross through Indonesia relatively easily. Possibly arrived in Australia around 50K BP. See also 38 K-25 BP.
55,000 BP: Partial melting of glaciers (Singer and Avory, p.xiv).
23,000 BP: Bones of Cro-Magnon man found on dried out lake Mungo, NSW, Australia (Bryson, pp. 402-3). Australia previously thought inhabited the last 8,000 years.
50,000 BP: N. Pole leaves Greenland Sea, moves to Hudson Bay 60N 73W (Hapgood). England warmest.
52,600 BP: Speculative earth crust displacement (Flem-Aths, after Hapgood), bringing Canada to North Pole. Next see 9,600 BC, below.
50,000 BP: Small (30 yds across) asteroid hit Arizona, blasting half mile crater.
50,000 BP: Brazil: Bones, hearths, charcoal suggest indigenous population before invasion of Americas by Mongoloids (Ancient Voices, BBC2, 1/9/99). Remains resemble Negroid Australian aborigines.
45,000 BP: Oldest radiocarbon dates now known for Adélie penguins: sites occupied by Adélie penguins prior to the last advance of the Ross Ice Sheet at the end of the Pleistocene documented, indicating that open water conditions must have existed in the Ross Sea at that time. In addition, radiocarbon data reveal penguin colonies today are no older than 1000-2000 years old so there were periods in-between when no pebbles were available for nesting (Emslie, Stephen D. 45,000 Year Old Record of Adelie Penguins And Climate Change In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, Geological Society Of America 2nd January 2007). These penguins nest on ice-free coastal areas.
45,000 BP: New evidence suggests Homo sapiens had reached Europe earlier than previously thought, and co-existed with Neanderthals for around 5,000 years (Nature, August 2014).
41,000 BP: Teeth and a piece of jaw found in Italy and Kent's Cavern, Torquay indicate earliest Homo sapiens presence in Europe (Nature, November 2011).
41,000 BP: Brief complete pole reversal, Laschamp Event, with the change in polarity lasting about 250 years (Wikipedia).
40,000 BP: Linguist estimates Andaman islands became isolated in Indian Ocean (C4 In Search of Eden, 14/5/01). These tribes carry Asian as well as African marker in DNA.
40,000 BP: Very cold period, acc. to Edinburgh Uni team’s study of corals (Times, 26/1/01), also Fuerbacher. Neanderthals hit hard. Oldest human (Cro-Magnon) skull in Europe found in Cave Of Bones, Rumania. Bosphorus did not exist; humans migrated into Europe via the Danube? Many Europeans' DNA traceable to this time. Now see also 44,0000 BP.... busy period this, with humans reaching Siberia (stone tools and reindeer bone needles) from south west, following prey?
35,000 BP: First hunter-gatherers moved into Palaeolithic southern Europe from the Middle East. (Sykes, B. Daily Mail 11/11/00); earliest footprints in the Americas? dating of footprints in volcanic ash in Mexico suggest peoples arrived by sea (BBC website 5/7/05). Previously thought to be 12,500 BP via Siberian land bridge.
39,300 BP: Campanian Ignimbrite eruption - reduced temperatures in what was already a cold period by a couple of degrees or more - Middle to Upper European Palaeolithic Transition. Major eruption of Campi Flegrei (Phlegraean Fields) near Naples (Napoli) in Italy. Caused late Pleistocene biocultural changes and is indicated in Greenland ice core samples. Possibly related to the demise of the Neanderthals, though no trace found so far of any after 40,000 BP.
25,000 BP: Split in the second major wave of migrations from Africa, with the ancestors of the Han Chinese going East mostly through central Asia, the European antecedents North via the Caucasus and Turkey (American Journal Of Human Genetics, week beginning 18th September 2011).
23,000 BP: Isle of Lewis, Scotland found to be unglaciated (Nature 309, 1984, 701-3).
35,000 BP: Start of recent Ice Ages, acc. to Earth’s Story, 13/12/98. Around this time the path from Asia to the Americas may have been open allowing humans to settle the New World in advance of the Clovis migration; genetic 'evidence' compatible (Mapping Human History p.205.)
33,400 BP: Last date obtained for Neanderthals.
33,000 BP: Paleolithic 'mine' found in Egypt (Schoch, p.56). No stalagmite growth around this time, indicating a cold period (whereas there was growth circa 35,000+ BP).
30,000 BP: Worlds oldest known cave paintings at Chauvet (Focus 6/96 p.83). Sabre tooth tigers still in Britain (Time Team, C4, 'Britain's Drowned World 24 Apr 2007). Humans reached edge of Arctic Ocean. Peak of Ice Age 5,000 years later forced humans south to Mongolia. (IHJ:Asia.) Coldest point of Ice Age? (Singer and Avery). Extensive deserts and semi-deserts; sea level about 400 feet lower than today.
10,000 BP: Upper Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age); followed by Mesolithic.
15,000 BP: Glacial marine ice cores, Ross Sea.
29,000 BP: Male skeleton, the oldest ceremonial burial found in Europe. found by William Buckland in 1823 in a cave at Paviland on the Gower peninsula. Weather then 'Siberian' with an average winter temperature of -20 degrees Celsius and summer +10 degrees.
28,000 BP: Neanderthals reduced to isolated colonies in Portugal.
26,000 BP: Oldest known Homo Sapiens sapiens human footprints. disc. in Grotte Chauvet cave, France. Palaeolithic boy, about 9 yrs. (Times, 11/6/99 p.13.)
20,000 BP: Second wave of people moved into southern Europe from Middle East. 'Peak of the Ice Age' (IHJ:Eur).
24,000 BP: Disruption to the Gulf Stream, exacerbating effects of Ice Age (Iceworld, Channel 4, September 2002). N.B. Stream can boost European temperatures by 15 degrees C. U.K. Uninhabitable under half a mile thickness of ice.
22,000 BP: Traditionally when man entered New World from Siberia (TAWH p46). But see also 50,000 and 35,000 BP. At this time, characteristic tool cultures are the last indication of Neanderthal presence - at Gibraltar (Wikipedia).
20,000 BP: Global temperature/CO2 low, as measured by Vostock ice core (prev. 140,000 BP). This is the lowest temperature - 10 degrees Celsius lower than today - recorded in the last 800,000 years according to Jean Jouzel in Science July 5th 2007 (the warmest was 130,000 years ago during the last interglacial - 4.5 degrees C warmer than today).
20,000 BP: White’s guestimate for birthdate of Adam (How Old is the Earth? p.29). Britain may have been joined to France, indicating lower sea levels around this time. Human footprints around Lake Mungo, S.E. Australia dated by luminescence in sand grains (IHJ:Aus). See also 60,000 - 40,000 BP.
20,000 BP: Ice sheet over the UK at its thickest: 1 km deep above Scotland (Landscape Mysteries: Britain before the Ice).
10,000 BP: Antarctic ice cores show upward trend in temperatures - contradicts Hapgood.
19,000 BP: Pre-Clovis peoples in America? Earliest occupation layer at Meadowcraft rock shelter in Western Pennysylvania as measured by radiocarbon dates (Mapping Human History, p. 199).
18,000 BP: Sea levels begin to rise significantly.
18,000 BP: Skeleton of 3’ high Homo floresiensis, discovered October 2004. Did this branch of humanity survive another 6,000 years? (S. Times 31/10/04). Salutrian civilisation in France/Spain. Technology bears similarities to Clovis 5,000 years later. Has led to theory that these Europeans crossed Atlantic to Americas via skin boats and ice floes. Pre-Columbian. DNA evidence seems to support this mixing.
17,000 BP: East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreats. North Pole leaves Hudson Bay, to arrive at its present position 12,000 BP (Hapgood). N.B. in Hapgood’s “revised version” the movement is not immediate (http://www.poleshift.org/); his theory is criticised by Schoch. Posnansky's est. of the date of the Kalasasaya at Tiahuanaco based on obliquity of the ecliptic (Hancock pp. 76-); end of the last ice age (Furlong); possible era of the migration of Negroid peoples into S. America? Hancock cites Irwin, C. Fair Gods and Stone Faces, 1964.
Lascaux cave paintings, France depict animals (bulls, horses etc) which would not have been found in the region during the Ice Age - Frank Edge's summer sky map of 15,000 BC theory with Taurus
and other constellations depicted to fix the summer solstice (Schoch, p.65). Over 17,000 years recorded by cave stalagmites in Sauerland, Germany trace periods of warming and cooling of the Earth (Niggemann et al., A Paleoclimate Record of the Last 17,600 years in Stalagmites from the B7 Cave, Sauerland, Quaternary Science Reviews 22 (2003) pp 555-67.
Also at this time there may have been a major volcanic eruption in Indonesia causing the demise of Homo floresiensis.
14,000 BP: First inundation of Black Sea with Mediterranean saline overspill? (BBC Focus magazine, November 2010.), See also 5,500 BC.
16,000 BP: Global warming (Olson, p.99).
15,500 BP: At Buttermilk Creek, Texas, archaeologists have found up to 19,000 stone tools. The site "has yielded more pre-Clovis tools than all other such sites combined" (Scientific American, November 2011). It is thought that these peoples entered the Americas by crossing a dry Beringia (sea levels being much lower during the Ice Age), "leaving their East Asian homeland sometime between 25,000 and 15,000 ears ago".
15,000 BP: Pre-Clovis peoples in America? Occupational layer more than 15,000 years old near Richmond, Virginia (Mapping Human History, p.199).
13,000 BP: Lake Agassiz forms from glacial meltwater and empties via the McKenzie into the Pacific (causing global cooling?) (Wikipedia.)
14,600 BP: Early Americans in Chile, using hide-covered tents (Scientific American, November 2011)
13,500 BP: Approximate range of Older Dryas, or relatively cool period in N. Hemisphere.
11,500 BP: Bones of 'Red Deer Cave People' of Southern China analysed by Sino-Australian team. Speculation/disagreement over whether they may be a different species of human to Homo sapiens, the Neanderthals, etc. (BBC News website, 15/3/2012).
14,000 BP: Generally accepted approx. end of last Ice Age, with ice caps retreating in both northern and southern hemispheres. Earth temperatures rose to approx. those of today. Sea levels rise, forests spread (Singer and Avory). North Atlantic ‘conveyor’ resumes (Feuerbacher, p.9). First of the floods caused by catastrophic melting of the ice caps Oppenheim, p.24). Start of the Holocene epoch. The pole star was Vega at this time, 12,000 BC.
End of Pleistocene - accompanied by extinction of two thirds of large mammal species in North America. Palaeolithic hunters or rapid climate change?
13,000 BP: Clovis (spear) technology in Mexico marks leap forward. Oxygen isotope records from Greenland suggest climate warm but starting to get colder again - within 700 years an ice cap had built up in Scotland (Earth Story p.166, Whyte p.2). This period known as the Younger Dryas stadial, lasting for about 1500 years. Temperature drops by about 15 degrees Celsius in Britain and Greenland within 10 years.
13,000 BP: Human remains on California's Channel Islands dated to. Evidence challenges orthodox theory of migration into the Americas which requires peoples to cross the Bering Strait into central Canada and then southwards.
12,900 BP: Clovis peoples and the giant animals of their time vanish. New evidence suggests...."a comet, possibly 1.9 miles wide, smashed into the Earth's atmosphere" setting much of North America ablaze..evidence from "a thin layer of strange debris featuring microscopic diamond dust and...iridium...peppered across North Africa and parts of Europe. Fireballs ...crashed into much of the vast icesheet covering the northern half of North America...exactly when colossal meltwaters surged into the North Atlantic, throwing ocean currents off course and plunging the world into an abrupt freeze that lasted more than 1,000 years" (Times, 29/5/07). Carl Munck claims this is around when Atlantis was destroyed.
Laacher See volcanic eruption in Germany also around this time.
12,600 BP: Best estimate of the beginning of the Younger Dryas, a cold spell affecting mainly the Northern Hemisphere (though MacDougall on p.198 admits the event "was a global phenomenon"). Droughts prevalent in north, affecting Mammoths? (Whyte). Equals 10,800 BC, easing off about 11,600 BP (9,600 BC); the cooling less rapid and more intermittent than the warming at the end of the period. Around this time North American Lake Agassiz emptied huge volumes of fresh water into the St Lawrence Seaway - causing the Atlantic Conveyor to weaken/stop? (MacDougall, pp 109-110.) See also 6,200 BC (8,200 years ago)...
10,000 BC: Age of Leo in astrological terms.
12,500 BP: Hancock, Bauval assert is the Egyptian 'First Time', also date of last geomagnetic reversal (p.484). Cite Nature and New Scientist 6/1/1972 p.7. Monte Verde, Chile site discovered in the 1990s suggests South America peopled before Clovis' ancestors entered from Asia (Schoch, p.60). Climatically the Younger Dryas starts here - Earth plunged back into fresh but short-lived Ice Age after initial recovery 1500 years earlier.
12,350 BP: Morner and Lanser (1974) postulated a magnetic pole excursion from a core taken from the Gothenburg Botanical Gardens in Sweden, hence 'Gothenburg Flip'. However other scientists have failed to validate this finding.
12,300 BP: Arabs dated The Flood. Hancock Keepers of Genesis, p242. Before 10,000 BC, global sea levels are said to have been 90' to 100' lower than the present day.
12,178 BP: Celestial pole inclined 30 deg. from present position (Allan and Delair, p15, taken from Noel, M. and Tarling, D.H. Laschamp Geomagnetic Event. Nature vol.253 pp 705-6, 1975).
10,000 BC: Around this time the global human population estimated to be around a million (Whyte, p.50. Most of the large Mammoths became extinct over this period. Small ones survived on Wrangel Island until around 1700 BC.
12,000 BP = 10,000 BC. This chronology uses 'BP' prior to this date - HGS.
10,000 BC: Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Second pulse of post glacial flooding (Hancock, Flooded..., op.cit) as temperature rises. CO2 in the atmosphere reaches its lowest level (Feuerbacher, p.4). 7 degree temperature rise in 15 years (Time Team, C4, 'Britain's Drowned World', 24 Apr 2007).
4,000 BC: Fine (alluvial) ice cores, Ross Sea. Egypt much wetter, with savannah instead of desert - =Nabtian Pluvial.
4,000 BC: Floodplain of the Avon forms near College Green (BAGAS vol. 124, 2006).
4,000 BC: Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Britain.
9,600 BC: Traditional date for destruction of Atlantis (Solon). Speculative date of earth crust displacement (Flem-Aths, after Hapgood), based on sudden mass extinction’s. North Pole moves to present location - contradicts Hapgood's 12,000 BP. Tollmann's estimated date of Great Flood, ending most recent Ice Age (prevalence of tektites, sudden increase on Carbon 14 in fossilised trees, caused by impact explosion?). (Schoch, p.199; original source not given in his bibliography.)
9,600 BC: Sudden warming of climate shown by Greenland ice cores which record a 14 degree jump in 15 years (Schoch, p.172). Thus the Younger Dryas gave way to the Pre-Boreal, and finally the Boreal (9,000-7500 BC). Did poles shift?
9,500 BC: Speculative Phaeton catastrophe (Allan & Delair). Also time of the disintegration of comet precipitating Ice Ages according to Clube and Napier; much dust deposited 10,000 yrs prior to this (CDE, p.10 see also Schoch, p.205). Second of the great floods caused by catastrophic melting of the ice caps Oppenheim, p.24). Approx. date of destruction of Atlantis (Hancock, Flooded Kingdoms of the Ice Age, Ch.4, 11/2/02).
7,000 BC: Early Holocene climactic optimum confirmed by Antarctic ice cores. Was this the last time the Atlantic Conveyor closed down or retreated south? (Stringer, p.149.)
date: Considered an interglacial period. Planet warms to present temperatures in about 100 years. Ice sheets melted, sea levels rose, forests expanded at expense of grass and deserts shrank (Singer and Avery.)
8,000 BC: 'Amazon cave findings shed new light on American prehistory' (Times, 19/4/96): evidence of the peopling of the Amazon basin independent of Clovis.
9,000 BC: Northern Europe and north-eastern North America reverted to glacial conditions in less than 100 years; the Younger Dryas. Caused by massive amounts of meltwater exiting the St Lawrence Seaway? (Feuerbacher, p.10).
Rising sea levels create permanent English Channel (preceded by a 'super river' which drained the southern North Sea to varying degrees after approx 450,000 years BP - Independent, 30th November 2009).
Female Negroid skull discovered 1999 in Serra Da Capivara, NE Brazil. Cave paintings suggesting possible scenes of violence with Mongoloid peoples? Oldest (non-Mongoloid) skull in Tierra Del Fuego (Ancient Voices, BBC2, 1/9/99). ‘Japanese’ Jomon pottery - the oldest in the world (Oppenheim).
1 BC: Period during which Antarctica may have been mapped as an unglaciated archipelago by Buache, the C18th French geographer (Hapgood; Hancock). For a refutation of this theory see http://xoomer.alice.it/dicuoghi/Piri_Reis/PiriReis_eng.htm
8,600 BC: Vedde Ash, 6-7 cubic metres of tephra found around northern Europe and attributed to Icelandic volcano Katla in one of its biggest eruptions.
8,126 BC: Beginning of Zodiacal Age of Cancer.
8,500 BC: Approximate age of the Earth according to modern day creationists, based on the alleged imbalance of Carbon 14 in the atmosphere (White, p.88). Approximate date of Noah's Flood according to other creationists who base their surmise on the archaeology mentioned in Genesis compared with the dating of the Bronze Age, etc. N.b. the half life of Carbon 14 is 5730 years; however it can be traced in Carboniferous geology.
8,496 BC: (4th June) Ancient Americans began new time cycle immediately after a cataclysm (Much, Otto in Kolosimo, P. Timeless Earth, p.136).
8,419 BC: Baltic becomes brackish and level with the Atlantic following seismic event. http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/13091
7,350 BC: First archaeologically known city, Jericho, founded.
8,100 BC: 'Cold snap' in relation to today's temperatures (Langdon, p.55).
8000 BC: Tundra retreats from British Isles (Dunbavin, p.86).
7000 BC: Pre-Boreal climatic period of Holocene.
8,000 BC: End of Pleistocene, Younger Dryas and the Paleolithic part of the Stone Age. Holocene begins. Rapid global warming (Encarta). Since then, unusual climatic stability, benefiting temperate zone agriculture (Earth’s Story). 2006: Earth’s atmosphere warmest since then? Mediterranean rises, eventually by around 200 feet.
Cold spell ended abruptly as indicated by O-18 levels in ice cores (Feuerbacher). “Siberian” man reaches southern Chile. Bones of Red Deer plus human teeth in Malta; underwater stone circle off Japan (Hancock, Flooded....op. cit.). This is disputed by the geologist Schoch.
Emergence of agriculture at least 10,000 years ago (Olson, p.92).
First signs of activity at Stonehenge site (Operation Stonehenge: What Lies Beneath), BBC2, 10/9/2014. Wooden pole holes, Auroch bones, Purpling stones, other signs of human habitation...Mesolithic.
4,800 BC: Britain exposed to "monsoon" (hot and moist) type climate (Langdon, p.54). Contains the so-called 'Atlantic Period', as determined by the pollen counts of trees thriving in this period. However, cold snaps between 7,200-7,200 and 6,600-6,500 BC, etc. (+see below).
3,000 BC: Strong 'seasonal' (=monsoon?) rains in Sahara, as evidenced by alternate layers of sand and clay in rocky outcrops in Egyptian Desert. One 'lake' bigger than the UK.N.b even hotter Saharan temperatures than at present required to create the extremes of air temperature to precipitate (literally!) a monsoon.
Cave paintings dated to 8000 BP (6000 BC) show 'athletic' humans, variety of Savannah mammals and maybe even human swimmers (Orbit, BBC 2, March 2012). The programme thought a cyclical maximum in the tilt of the Earth's axis, to about 24.5 degrees (whereas at present it is 23.4 degrees), was the cause.
7090 BC: Several great volcanic eruptions (Feuerbacher).
7,800 BC: Warren Field, Aberdeenshire pit alignment dated to and in use for about 4,000 years thereafter according to excavation (Current Archaeology 283, October 2013 pp 12-19). Speculation it could have been a lunar calendar, far earlier than was previously thought possible.
7,300 BC: Estimated age of Kennewick Man, from bone tests (Caucasoid, or Ainu male found on a bank of the Columbia River, Washington State, United States in 1996).
5,900 BC: About 1,000 sq. miles of dry land overwhelmed in North Sea, leaving only Dogger Bank above sea level (Independent On Sunday, p.8, 15/10/00).
7,335 BC: Stonehenge: post hole excavated in 1989 dated to this period containing piece of Rhyolite/Bluestone suggests the monument is much older than orthodox dating.
7,500 BC: Finds recovered from Gulf of Cambay site in Gujarat dated to at least this age (BBC News website, 19/1/02). Sonar revealed ‘lost’ city 120’ underwater.
7,500 BC: First evidence of stone tools, pottery, domestication of animals and crop growing in China (Diamond, p.329).
7,200 BC: 'Cold snap' in relation to today's temperatures, according to Langdon.
7,330 BC: 'Kennewick Man' radio carbon dated to. Found near the Columbia River, Washington, USA in 1996. Controversy over features thought by some to be not Native American.
6,500 BC: Underwater village remains off the coast of Israel at Atlit Yam, believed to have succumbed to rising sea levels. Stone built houses, wells, megaliths, cemetery. Hunters, fishers, farmers (BBC Focus, November 2012 p.40).
5,167 BC: Estimated date of Flood acc. to Whitcomb and Morris, i.e. 3,000 - 5,000 yrs after the birth of Abraham. Somerset peat below sea level (Peat Moors Centre).
7,000 BC: It was around this time, according to Prof. Colin Renfrew's late 1980s Anatolian hypothesis, that Indo-European languages originated in Anatatolia (Modern day Turkey). This has been supported by New Zealand researchers (Nature, August 2012) using phylogenetic methods from evolutionary biology. The findings contradict the rival Steppes/Kurgen theory which holds that proto-Indo-European developed in and spread from north of the Caspian Sea in the Russian Steppes around 5,000 years B.P. (Indo-European includes the Germanic languages which also led to English.
5,500 BC: Boreal period of Holocene. Ireland cut off from rest of British Isles at beginning; by end whole of Britain cut off from Europe(Wikipedia).
5,000 BC: As Scandinavian ice cap melts, Neolithic Europe repopulated by peoples from Siberia and Asia Minor (Sykes, B. Daily Mail, 11/11/00. See also entries for 40,000 and 25,000 BP. Evolution of Indo-European languages in Anatolia, reaching Europe 6,000 BC (Gibbins). Schoch's estimate for the construction period of the Sphinx (p.50, Voices Of The Rocks) based primarily on water-induced erosion. Ross Sea secondary Antarctic climatic optimum as measured by ice cores(see also 6,000 BP and 11,500 BP). Catal Huyuk, Anatolia (Turkey).
4,000 BC: Radio carbon dating indicates most peat bogs in Britain and other western European countries formed......after flooding at the end of the last Ice Age (Langdon, p.57).
3,000 BC: Holocene 'Climatic Optimum'; Earth warmer and wetter than at present. Saharan and Arabian Deserts support hunting, herding and some agriculture.
6,608 BC: Pole shift (Munck)?
6,600 BC: Ice 'rebound' triggers major quake and tsunami in Sodermanland, Sweden. Others between 11,600 BP and 900 BP. http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/13091/InTech-Traces_of_tsunami_events_in_off_and_on_shore_environments_case_studies_in_the_maldives_scotland_and_sweden.pdf.
6,500 BC: Very cold snap in Britain prior to the generally warm Atlantic Period?
6,500 BC: Core sample suggests The Solent first inundated by the sea - remains of a flooded oak forest. More and more land disappears in the following centuries as isostatic re-adjustment takes place following the last Ice Age. Flint tools found from just after this period. (Landscape Mysteries: Secrets of the Flood, BBC2 10/03). Boreal climate period in Europe. Present outline of Severn Estuary does not exist yet - at this time the river emptied into a bay near Lundy. Human and animal footprints preserved at Goldcliff (Newport) - Stringer, p.158.
6,500 BC: Earliest known building in S. America - step pyramid - subsequently buried in lava (Kolosimo).
4,500 BC: Migration of pre-Saharan peoples west, south west and into the Middle East as the land dried out almost completely; falling sea levels; falling water table in North Africa;origins of Hebrew (Thompson).
5,970 BC: Beginning of Zodiacal Age of Gemini.
4,700 BC: Vespasian's Camp near Stonehenge Mesolithic domestic site.
6,200 BC: Catal Huyuk fresco depiction of volcanic eruption - oldest known image of active volcano. Lake Agassiz believed to have suddenly emptied for the last time, into Hudson Bay. Could have affected the Gulf Stream/North Atlantic Conveyor. See also 12,800 BP.
Stonehenge activity pauses around this time, until the Neolithic peoples reach Great Britain in 4000 BP.
6,100 BC: Tsunami originating from the coast of Norway destroys what remains of Mesolithic Doggerland, cutting Britain off from Europe (BBC Focus November 2012 p.37). As explored later on The Stone Age Tsunami (Channel 4, 30/5/2013) this was caused by the earthquake-triggered Storegga Slide. The evidence includes a thin sandy layer with the microscopic remains of smashed diatoms found between the clays along points of the Scottish (e.g. at Montrose) and Northumberland coasts. This water would have receded unlike the flooding caused by the final release of Lake Agassiz around 4,200 BC, but is believed to have been finally abandoned around 6,000 BC.
5,900 BC: Cold snap prior to the generally mild Atlantic Period.
6,000 BC: Garden of Eden; Adamites (Rohl, Legend, pp 403-); last of the sea floods which drowned parts of SE Asia creating the Indonesian islands; Earth’s crust cracks as northern ice-plates collapse; mass emigration from area (Oppenheim, Eden in the East). Peat deposits indicate much of Somerset below sea level. Cave paintings from Egyptian Desert showing possible swimming humans (see 8000 BP).
5,000 BC: Nubian rock paintings (Lost Kingdoms Of Africa, BBC4, 1/2010)
3000 BC: East Antarctic climatic optimum as measured by ice cores. Warm, moist, 'Atlantic' climate period succeeds Boreal in Europe (Wikipedia, see above).
2,500 BC: Saharan wet phase. Pastoral rock paintings at Tassili, Hoggar etc. (TAWH p45.)
5,600 BC: Mini Ice Age ? (Ryan and Pitman.)
5,500 BC: Black Sea cores indicate marine deposits superseded freshwater after over 15,000 yrs (BBC Horizon ‘Noah’s Flood’, 16/12/96). Transition from freshwater to saltwater molluscs - almost certainly due to rising sea levels bursting though a natural dam across the Bosphorus around 5,600 BC (CDE, p.15). Rapid flooding of Arabian Gulf (Oppenheim). Final melting of ice-age ice, loss of land bridges e.g. between Britain and Europe (CWH). Big retreat of West Antarctic ice sheet? (Gibbins, D. Atlantis; historical notes, p.453). Archaeological discontinuity in a tell excavation in Turkey (Ryan and Pitman) Migration of Cain’s descendants to Susiana (Rohl, Legend, p.408). See also 17,000- 14,000 BP.
3,000 BC: Atlantic period of Holocene; Elm, Oak, Lime; Summer and winter 1-2 deg. warmer than present, rainfall 10-15% higher (Dunbavin, p.87). Comparatively moist in Egypt/Saharan areas, corresponding to Neolithic occupancy. (P.I.S.O.W.C.)
5,400 BC: Radio carbon dating of new Stonehenge finds (April 2013). Site possibly occupied as early as 7,500 BC. Archaeology led by David Jacques.
5,000 BC: Enoch ‘builder king’ founded Eridu? (Rohl, Legend, p.409). Possible geological record of a tsunami hitting the area of Sullom Voe, Shetland (Radio Times, 2/6/07).
3,000 BC: Average global temperatures reached their maximum during the Holocene and were 1-2 degrees warmer than today. This period is known as the Climatic Optimum and prompted many of the great ancient civilisations to flourish. (http://www.physicalgeography.net/).
4,900 BC: Early Neolithic tomb found in 2010, at Buthiers-Boulancourt, about 40 miles (65km) south of Paris, revealed a man of about 50 who had been trepanned and undergone surgery to have an arm cleanly removed (Times, 25/1/2010).
4,200 BC: Sea level around Great Britain stabilises (Stringer, p.158). In November 2012 it is announced that archaeologists working in Bulgaria have discovered Europe's oldest prehistoric town a thousand years older than the earliest Greek sites. It is near the Black Sea resort of Varna, may have contained around 350 inhabitants, and possibly owed its wealth to salt extraction.
4,500 BC: Current estimate of beginnings of Neolithic agriculture (Whyte)?
4,300 BC: Final sinking of Atlantis, according to Langdon.
3,814 BC: Beginning of the Zodiacal Age of Taurus.
4,236 BC: Earliest known year 'date', with founding of the Egyptian calendar.
4,004 BC: Est. date of Creation (Ussher).
4,000 BC: Burial chamber beneath Stanton Drew stone circle, Somerset dated approx. to this time - 1,000 years older than the stones themselves? http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/news/latestnews/2010/January/Pages/Stanton%20Drew%20now%201000%20years%20older.aspx
4,000 BC: "Civilisation first developed in the 'Fertile Crescent' of the Middle East" i.e. Sumer and Egypt (Hancock - 'trad'). People of Eridu established trading centre on Bahrain (Rohl, Legend, p410). “6,000 year old ‘train’” to New Guinea and Bismarck’s (Oppenheim, p170). Sub-pluvial period of wetter, more Mediterranean-like climate in the Middle East.
3,000 BC: Somerset peat drying out. Rising curve of sea level flattens out at present-day levels (reduced ice sheets of the world now in equilibrium with the climate? (RMS 1966 conference p.12, see bib.)
2,500 BC: Neolithic in Britain.
present: Glacial marine ice cores in Ross Sea, opposite New Z. (Hapgood, p.235). Temperatures peaked and remained stable for 2,000 years (Feuerbacher, p.4). Civilisations flourished in regions that are now desert, incl. Egypt/Sahara. Europe north of the Alps became increasingly cold and wet. Around this time the global human population estimated to be around seven million, sustained by advances in agriculture (Whyte, p.5).
3,761 BC: Date for creation of the world, according to the Jewish calendar.
3,500 BC: Cold snap in Britain, within relatively warm Atlantic Period?
3,600 BC: Nubian city/temple (Into Africa with Henry Louis Gates, BBC2 17/7/99 and ff).
3,200 BC: Late Neolithic. Sea level rises (BAGAS v124, 2006)
3,500 BC: Binary asteroid glanced The Moon creating craterlets Messier and Messier A. Orbit did not resettle until c.1,500 BC. (see below). Recorded in rock art, Newgrange? Violent changes in Earth weather resulted. (Times, 12/8/02.)
South Chinese expand to and settle on Taiwan. Beginning of their Austronesian (language family) speaking colonisation of the western Pacific excluding Australia and most of New Guinea. N.b. this language family not to be confused with Austro-Asiatic, also Chinese in origin, which spread south into Indo-China (Diamond, p.341). Contradicts Oppenheim, op.cit.
Sea levels around Britain reach approximately their present level (BBC Focus magazine, November 2012 p.37).
3000 BC: Close encounters between asteroid Olijato and Earth (Schoch, p.205).
3,400 BC: Pictographs, first form of writing, appeared: Babylonian Cuneiform.
1,200 BC: Bronze Age (followed by Iron Age and preceded by Stone Age).
The world's oldest undeciphered writing (Proto-Elamite, present day SW Iran) dated to this period, and is the subject of study by Oxford University academics (BBC website news, 22/10/2012).
3,123 BC: (June 29th): scientists examining 700 BC clay tablet with cuneiform writing deduce it is a copy of a record made by a Sumerian astronomer of an asteroid hitting The Earth (in the Austrian Alps at Kofells), also recorded in several ancient myths including the Sodom and Gomorrah and Phaeton stories. Times, 31/3/2008 p.13.
3,114 BC: 'Year Zero' in Mayan calendar (Dunbavin). Mayan calendar now has starting date of August 12th 3114 BC; follows ‘cataclysm’. Mayans believed their original homelands (east across the Atlantic?) were destroyed before this calendar expires December 2012.
3,100 BC: "Was the earth’s' rotation disturbed by a comet impact ?" (Dunbavin, Paul. The Atlantis Researches) Others, incl. David Furlong, writing in Kindred Spirit Quarterly issue 41 p35 have linked these last three events with the translocation of Atlantean culture. Evidence of dramatic rising/falling sea levels and drying of Sahara. Art of writing invented, hieroglyphic and cuneiform; Bronze Age begins first in the Middle East. Great Flood (Rohl, Legend, pp. 411 -).
1,500 BC: Stonehenge developed, initially in the form of a bank and ditch. Stones not added until about 2,600 BC (Wikipedia).
3,005 BC: Some creationists suggest asteroid impacted Yucatan peninsula bringing to an end the age of the dinosaurs. This date is calculated from 'accelerated decay' of Carbon 14.
3,000 BC: Approximate end of Holocene Climatic Optimum. Arctic ice 50% thinner than at present according to research by Danish team (Science, 4/8/11). Average temperature in northern hemisphere about 4 degrees C warmer than present though southern hemisphere slightly cooler than now.
3000 BC: New excavations suggest stones brought to Stonehenge earlier than previously thought - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/wiltshire/7660860.stm
Radio carbon dating of 'lesser wall' on Orkney's Ness of Brodgar; contemporary with Skara Brae etc. History of Ancient Briton: Orkney's Stone Age Temple BBC2 1/1/2012. Further date suggests site systematically abandoned about 2,300 BC, possibly through change in belief systems/transition to Bronze Age. http://www.orkneyjar.com/archaeology/nessofbrodgar/excavation-background-2/
3,000 BC: Austronesian speakers reach The Philippines (Diamond, p.341).
3,000 BC: Earliest formal calendars date from around this time
1,000 BC: Global cooling, accompanied by large drops in sea level http://www.physicalgeography.net/); Sub-Boreal period of Holocene to 500 BC.
Somerset peat suggests rainfall increasing. Sub-Boreal period; similar to today, poss. drier; deforestation (man); slight glacial advances (Dunbavin). Follows ‘Piora oscillation’ (Furlong).
2,900 BC: Invasion of Egypt by ‘followers of Horus’/’Dilmunites’, leading to first of the Pharaohs (Rohl, Legend, pp 416.) Most likely date for Biblical/Sumerian Deluge (CWH)
2,750 BC: Evidence of localised flood during Early Dynastic period in Sumer (CDE, p.9). Possibly referred to by cuneiform tablet a thousand years later (see this Chronology, below).
2,627 BC: Caral Pyramids, Peru: radio carbon dating to (Wikipedia).
2,620 BC: Trad. date of Pyramid/Sphinx construction (see also 2,500 BC).
2,600 BC: Approx. age of Silbury Hill (WDP, 28/6/96). Dating of ‘lost pyramids of Caral’, in the Peruvian Desert (Horizon, 31/1/02). No pottery. Stone tools. Flutes of bone. Cotton. Evidence of drugs e.g. cocaine). Also temple, amphitheatre. Use of reeds provided dating. No visible fortifications; theory that city developed through trade with the fishermen of the coast, c. 20 miles away, once it was irrigated. Approximate late Bronze Age date for the fall of Troy based on archaeological evidence. See also 1194 BC. Recorded by Homer c. 8 BC. Cooling 'event' with relatively wet conditions in many parts of the world (Singer and Avery).
2,600 BC: Bluestones first used at Stonehenge (Wikipedia). These are the ones believed to have originated in the Preseli hills in Pembrokeshire and may have reached Salisbury Plain by glacial action or human agency.
2,400 BC: Sarsen stones used at Stonehenge.
2,500 BC: End of Saharan wet phase (see 6,000 BC, above). Approx. age of Great Pyramid, based on alignment to polar stars (National Geographic, Sept 2001). Approx. age of Marden Henge dwelling (floor surface discovered in 2010). This Henge, almost invisible except through aerial photography, is mid way between Avebury and Stonehenge and bigger than both.
1,200 BC: Bronze Age (Some authorities have to 700 BC; the period varied across the globe).
2,119 BC: Tower of Babel episode (White, based on Biblical chronology).
2,350 BC: Trad. date of the Flood (based on Ussher - Whitcomb and Morris, p.391). Other conservative Creationists place more generally between 2,500 and 2,300 BC....or even 8,500 BC (op cit).
870 BC: Approximate time range of the Sub-Boreal; hyper-arid period in Egypt and some other areas of North Africa (P.I.S.O.W.C.).
2,345 BC: Earth's axial tilt changed, according to some Creationists, maybe to 28 degrees or more, but a slow precession has brought it to the 23.45 degrees of today, thus moderating the climate away from extreme seasons.
2,000 BC: Narrow ring events in Irish oak tree-ring chronology (Schoch, p.248). Prev: 3095 BC; next: 1628 BC on 500 - 1,000 yr cycle.
2,300 BC: Orkney's Stone Age temple at Brodgar seems to have been abandoned (see 3000 BC and climate events below).
1,800 BC: Period of the Ice Age, according to some Creationists. At the end of this period the sea level obviously rose. Carl Munck, the archaeocryptographer, placed Noah's Flood and a major Chinese Flood at 4,300 years ago, or approximately 2,320 BC. Go back another 4,300 years to 6,640 BC and he claims this is when a polar shift took place. And a further 4,300 years takes us to 10,900 BC when he thought Atlantis was destroyed.
2,200 BC: '4.2 kiloyear aridification event' (Wikipedia) which caused world-wide climatic catastrophes and civilisation upheaval including the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt, over the whole of the following 100 years. Change to drier conditions, lowering of water level in lakes, reduced river discharge. But flood disasters in China, N. India, Greece, Australia and USA; civilisation collapse (CDE, p.16). Coincided with cooling event in the North Atlantic known as the Bond Event.
2,200 BC: Remains of comet destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah ? (Times, 30/3/97.)
2,167 BC: Estimated date of Abram’s birth (Whitcomb and Morris, p.478.)
1,658 BC: Beginning of the Zodiacal Age of Aries ( to AD 1 or AD 498, depending on Neil Mann or Heindel-Rosicrucian schemes).
2,000 BC: Oldest living tree/organism, the Bristlecone Pine - thought to be at least 4,000 years old. Sea levels rise to about 3 metres above present height (RMS conference p.12).
2,000 BC: Austronesian speakers (from China/Taiwan) reach Sumatra (Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel p.341)
1,000 BC: Brief warming trend.
1,600 BC: Old Babylonian empire.
1,350 BC: Biblical Joseph (trad.)
1,750 BC: Cuneiform tablet, discovered in the Middle East in 1948, mentions oncoming Flood and gives instructions for the Babylonian Atra-Hasis to build an ark of ropes, ribs and bitumen. Ark was to be circular and about half the size of a football pitch. The animals went in "two by two". Refers to events of about 1,000 years before. (The Real Noah's Ark, Channel 4, 14/9/2014.)
1,600 BC: Final extinction of Mammoths of Wrangel Island (Wikipedia). Low tree ring event (Dunbavin, Under Ancient Skies.... 2005.
1,600 BC: Pavlopetri, 'City Beneath The Waves' (BBC4 1/8/2012), about 5,000 years old and thought to have flourished but now 3 - 4 metres under water off the south coast of the Greek Peleponnese. The town is believed to have been submerged by successive earthquakes around 1,000 BC.
1,682 BC: Arrival of Israelites in Egypt (Rohl, Legend).
1,662 BC: Joseph born (Rohl, p330).
1,628 BC: Radiocarbon data from Irish Bog Oaks and Bristlecone pines show poor growth -result of Thera volcanic eruption? Rain of sulphuric acid, also detected in layers of Greenland ice (Gibbins). See below. Confirmed by Schoch, p.248. Prev: 2345 BC; next: 1159 BC.
1,550 BC: Supposed destruction of Santorini Atlantis Galanopoulos). Or, 1,626 BC (Dunbavin, p.159 and BBC’s Ancient Apocalypse 2/8/01); or 1628 BC as reported in the Sunday Times of 17/3/96 (theory that volcanic ash caused the biblical 7 yr. famine). N.B. Ex.13:21 "pillar of cloud/fire" -volcanic dust? A.A. states this was the second largest eruption of all time, after Tambora, Indonesia, 1815. BBC2 Timewatch programme of 20/4/07 propounds tsunami theory for the ultimate destruction of Minoan power as Crete is bombarded with waves after Santorini eruption. Shells, pottery found 1 km inland dated to match time of eruption. Minoan civilisation partially revives until invasion by Myceneans in 1450 BC.
1,560 BC: Est. date of Deucalion Flood, caused by cometary (Phaeton) impact (Beaumont, 1932)- CDE.
1,535 BC: Est. date of birth of Moses (Rohl, David. Test of Time, concl. 17/9/95 Ch.4).
1,460 BC: Est. date of Deucalion Flood (Calvesius/Helvicus and chronology of St Jerome). Olmecs in Mexico. Negroid heads (Hancock, Van Sertima) “3,500 year old ‘train’” to Polynesia (Oppenheim, p.170). Moon settled into current orbit after asteroid incident (see 3,500 BC.) About this time there were Bronze Age settlements on Dartmoor indicating an equable climate.
300 AD: Renewed growth in continental glaciers with sea level drop of between 2-3 metres below present day levels (www.physical geography.net).
1,495 BC: Est. date of Exodus (Velikovsky).
1,460 BC: Est. date of the Deucalion flood based on the chronology of St Jerome (Wikipedia).
1,450 BC: Venus passes close to Earth (Velikovsky).
1,447 BC: Est. date of Exodus, 13th Dynasty (Rohl, Test of Time, p330).
1,390 BC: Volcanic blast related to Thera? (Feuerbacher).
1,320 BC: Traditional, estimated date of Exodus (BRE&C).
1,280 BC: Estimated date of Exodus, Santorin professors' (ST 17/3/96)
1,250 BC: Academic historians’ est. of date of Exodus (not long after monotheist Akhenaten).
1,184 BC: Trojan War based on Eritosthenes' estimate. Herodotus places it at 1250 BC.
1,141 BC: Virtually no summer growth rings of British trees (BBC2 Coast, August 2005)- possible famine? No record of volcanic event. Comet? "Star of Anath" fell on Libya, according to Merenptah, Egyptian text. Confirmed by Schoch, p.248 (Irish oak tree ring chronology; prev. 1628 BC; next: AD 540).
1,150 BC: Most recent climatic disturbance. Invasion of Egypt by "sea peoples", collapse of Hittite empire, 'dark age' in Greece for 300 years (Dunbavin, p.159).
1,010 BC: First year of King David's reign (Rohl, p.328).
1,000 BC: Climatic deterioration in the British Isles, which became cooler and wetter. Narrowing tree rings in Ireland. Bronze Age retreat from uplands. Acid deposition. Successive earthquakes submerge the oldest known submerged archaeological town site.',
900 BC: Estimated date of Cascajal block of Olmec writing found in Mexico (Independent, 15th Sept 2006).
800 BC: Old Testament composed from to mid 2nd century BC (Fox, p.49). ‘Second’ Creation story written.
800 BC: Approximate dating of Bronze Age Uffington White Horse, the only chalk hill figure proven to be prehistoric (by dating the silts underneath the chalk).
500 BC: Somerset peat drier (Peat Moors Centre).
0 BC: Cold snap, in relation to today's temperatures, during 'Sub-Atlantic Period' (Langdon).
776 BC: First Olympic Games.
664 BC: “Egypt ruled by Kushite Pharaohs” (TAWH, p.45); 25th Dynasty.
712 BC: Kushite invasion of Egypt (Rohl, Legend, p19).
600 BC: Time of Tartessus/os or Tarshish and it's wealth supplying the other Mediterranean cultures. Located in Southern Spain near Cadiz, this harbour city has been linked with Atlantis. Herodotus placed it west of the Pillars of Hercules. The archaeological site at Cancho Roano, Spain, which also betrays Phoenician influence, could be a Tartessian sanctuary, dating from the 6th Century BC to 370 BC.
560 BC: Time of Solon, who received the Atlantis story from the Egyptians. The disaster was supposed to have been 9000 years before his time, i.e. 9600 BC (see above).
500 BC: Lane Fox estimates ‘priestly’ first version of the Biblical Creation written.
200 BC: Cold period preceding Roman Warming (Singer and Avory, p.xv).
587 BC: Second deportation of the Jews to Babylon; Jerusalem destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar's men.
550 BC: Mid-point of Mayan 'Golden Age' in terms of calendrical cycles.
537 BC: Death of ('King') Arthur in Annales Cambriae. Jews returning from Babylon.
500 BC: Around this time the global population is estimated to be about one hundred million (Whyte, p.5)
present: Sub-Atlantic climatic period of Holocene; becomes slightly cooler and wetter in W. Europe (Dunbavin).
450 BC: Temperatures rise again, reaching a peak around 1000 AD. Trend downward with oscillations thereafter. (Feuerbacher, p.4).
432 BC: Greeks (Meton) work out 18.6 year cycle of the Moon (northerly and southerly monthly extremes).
347 BC: Time of Plato.
322 BC: Aristotle.
347 BC: Atlantis story surfaces in Plato's Timaeus and Critias Dialogues, passed down from an ancestor who live 200 years before.
331 BC: Alexandria founded by Alexander The Great.
246 BC: Royal Library of Alexandria opened, under the Ptolemys.
212 BC: Archimedes of Syracuse.
250 BC: Most of the Old Testament completed by this date (Fox).
221 BC: China unified politically under first Qin Emperor, Qin Shi Huang.
209 BC: Terracotta army figures buried for Emperor.
100 BC: Silk Road established (Olson, p.124).
600 AD: Roman Warming, globally and climatically speaking. In 829 and 1010 AD ice formed on the Nile and 800-1 AD the Black Sea froze. (900-1300 AD Medieval Warming/Little Climate Optimum followed by 1300-1850 Little Ice Age.)
146 BC: Library of Carthage burned.
60 BC: Pergamon (Asia Minor) coins dated from the Antikythera wreck which yielded pottery from the same period and the 'Antikythera mechanism' which has been claimed as the oldest known analogue computer. Some scientists have tentatively attributed its design to Archimedes. Cicero (106-43 BC) described similar mechanisms being available earlier and may have their design origins in Babylonian, rather than Greek civilisation.
43 BC: Julius Caesar adds 80 days to the year.
476 AD: Roman Empire in Western Europe.
12 BC: Appearance of Halley’s Comet (Lane Fox).
4 BC: Most likely date range for the birth of Jesus because Herod died in 4 BC, according to biblical scholars. On 17th April 6 BC Jupiter was in Aries along with the Moon, Sun and Saturn all of which presaged the birth of a great king. Jupiter shortly went into retrograde motion then became stationery for a while, recalling the description of the Star of Bethlehem's behaviour in Matthew's gospel.
TODAY: Earth's orbit similar to that of 400,000 years ago; we are 10,000 years into an interglacial but next cold spell not expected for another 15,000 years....National Geographic, 28/10/2010.
BAGAS- Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society Proceedings.
BP 'Before Present' - this is usually taken to mean before 1950 (Whyte, p.24)
BRE and Bible Reader’s Encyclopedia Concordance.
Caltech- California Institute of Technology.
CE - Common Era, the same as but now the preferred designation to AD.
CWH-Chronology of World History: the Ancient World. H.E.Mellersh.
DK-Dorling Kindersley (publishers).
EITE- Eden in the East. Oppenheim, Stephen.
Legend -Legend: the Genesis of Civilisation. Rohl, David. Century, 1998.
MYBP- Million Years Before Present.
NF Noah’s Flood. Ryan, William and Pitman, Walter.
OT- Old Testament.
PISOWC - Proceedings of the International Symposium on World Climate 8000-0 BC
RI- Royal Institution lecture delivered January 1996, BBC2.
SIS-Society for Interdisciplinary Studies, founded 1974 post-Velikovsky.
TAWH-Times Atlas of World History, 1993 .
TCBC They Came Before Columbus. Van Sertima, Ivan.
UV Unauthorized Version. Fox, Robin Lane.
UVD- Ultimate Visual Dictionary.
WBE World Book Encyclopaedia, 1992.
WDP Western Daily Press.
WTSF When The Sky Fell. Rand and Rose Flem-Ath. BCA, 1995.
y or yrs- years.
Allan, D.S. and Delair, J.B. When The Earth Nearly Died. Gateway Books, 1995.
Bible Reader’s Encyclopedia and Concordance. Rev. by W. M. Clow, n.d.
Bryson, Bill. Short History of Nearly Everything. Doubleday, 2003.
Chronology of World History: the Ancient World. H. E. Mellersh, Helicon reissue 1994.
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs and Steel. Vintage, 1997.
Dunbavin, Paul. The Atlantis Researches. Third Millennium, 1995.
Edwards, I. E. S. Pyramids of Egypt, 3rd r.e. Penguin, 1991.
Feuerbacher, Alan. More Evidence for the Ice Ages. Taken from the Web at www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/6040/flood16htm.
Flem-Ath, Rand and Rose. When the Sky Fell. Orion, 1996.
Fox, Robin Lane. The Unauthorised Version. Viking Penguin, 1991.
Galanopoulos, A. G. and Bacon, E. Atlantis, the Truth Behind the Legend. Nelson, 1969.
Gibbins, David. Atlantis. Headline, 2005 (only historical notes used following work of fiction).
Goudie, Andrew. Environmental Change: Contemporary Problems in Geography. Clarendon Press, 1992.
Gould, Stephen Jay. Wonderful Life. Hutchinson Radius, 1990.
Hancock, Underworld: Flooded Kingdoms of the Ice Age, Michael Joseph, 2002.
Bauval, Robert, and Hancock, Keeper of Genesis: Quest for the Hidden Legacy of Mankind. Arrow, 1997.
Hapgood, Charles. Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings: Evidence of Advanced Civilisation in the Ice Age. Chilton Books, 1966.
Hapgood, Charles. Path of the Pole. 1968.
Keys, David CDE Catastrophes: the Diluvial Evidence. Palmer,T., Nottingham Trent University, paper presented at SIS...conference....19/9/99. Downloaded from the Internet 2/01.
Kolosimo, Peter. Timeless Earth. Sphere, 1974.
Langdon, Robert John. Prehistoric Britain - The Stonehenge Enigma. ABC Publishing, 2010.
Macdougall, Doug. Frozen Earth: the Once and Future Story of Ice Ages. University of California Press, 2004.
Olson, Steve. Mapping Human History. Bloomsbury, 2002 .
Oppenheim, Stephen. Eden in the East. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1998.
Oppenheimer, Clive. Eruptions That Shook The World. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Proceedings of the International Symposium on World Climate, see Royal Meteorological Society.
Rees, Martin. Just Six Numbers. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1999.
Rohl, David. Legend - the Genesis of Civilisation. Century, 1998.
Ryan, William and Pitman, Walter. Noah's Flood. Touchstone, 2000.
Schoch, Robert M. Voices Of The Rocks. Thorsons, 1999.
Siegel, L. Five Worst Extinctions in Earth's history. www.space.com/scienceastronomy/planet earth/extinction.
Singer, S. Fred and Avery, Dennis T. Unstoppable Global Warming. Rowman and Littlefield, 2007 (for Dansgaard hypothesis).
Smith, A. The Weather: The Truth About The Health Of Our Planet. Hutchinson, 2000.
Stringer, Chris. Homo Britannicus: The Incredible Story Of Human Life In Britain. Penguin, 2006.
Taylor, Timothy. The Buried Soul: How Humans Invented Death. Fourth Estate, 2002.
Thompson, Thomas. Bible in History: How Writers Create a Past. Jonathan Cape, 1999.
Ultimate Visual Dictionary. Dorling Kindersley, 1994.
Van Sertima, Ivan. They Came Before Columbus. Random House, 1976.
Velikovsky, I. Worlds In Collision. Gollancz, 1950.
Whitcomb, John C. and Morris, Henry M. The Genesis Flood. Baker Book House, 1961.
White, A. J. Monty. How Old Is The Earth? Evangelical Press, 1985.
Whyte, I. World Without End? Environmental Disaster and the Collapse of Empires. I.B. Tauris, 2008.