* All entries before 10,000 BC (or BCE, Before the Common Era) are in years Before Present (BP). Most dates are approximate, or rounded up, and may be adjusted as new discoveries come to light. I use the abbreviation ''m" for an estimated date 'millions of years ago'. 'Mya' is more often used in the literature.
* Terms such as 'Mesolithic' are relative depending on geography, i.e. the era was replaced by the Neolithic earlier in the Middle East than in the British Isles.
* In British English, a billion used to be equivalent to a million million (i.e. 1,000,000,000,000), while in American English it has always equated to a thousand million (i.e. 1,000,000,000). British English has now adopted the American figure, though, so that a billion equals a thousand million in both varieties of English (Oxford Dictionaries). I intend that a billion equals a thousand million in this blog.
* For other abbreviations, see end of Chronology.
* Sources, including TV programmes, books and internet sites follow the list of abbreviations.
* LATEST UPDATE: August 2015
300 - 500 million years:
The Wilson Cycle: approximate period in which super continents have formed and broken apart (In Our Time: The Geological Formation Of Britain, BBC Radio 4, 22/10/09).
225 - 250 m yrs:
Sun orbits the core of our galaxy.
200 - 250 m yrs:
Frequency of magnetic pole reversals over the last 10 - 20 million years. This is much more frequent than, say, 1.5 to 2.9 billion years ago when the likely frequency was only 5 million years (Veikkolainen, Geophysical Journal International, December 2014).
30 m yrs:
Solar system passes through densest - and most dangerous, for collisions - part of our galaxy (Space, BBC1, 29/7/2001).
Average frequency at which pole reversals occur. Process of reversal can take between 1,000 and 10,000 years (Wikipedia).
Period between maximum and minimum ellipticity of Earth Orbit (Milankovitch).
Stretch cycle as Earth’s orbit varies from more circular to more elliptical, distance from the Sun varying between 92 and 95 million miles. N.b. about every 110,000 years of the last 500,000 years of Earth history global temperatures have reached peaks/troughs. A further cycle whereby the Earth's orbit drifts up and down relative to the orbits of most of the other planets, esp. Jupiter (The Invariable Plane) takes around 100,000 years but the cycle relative to the Earth's present orbit is about 70,000 years. Cycles of Quaternary glaciation tend to conform to a 100,000 year cycle but changes in precession and obliquity are thought to be more significant (Wikipedia: Milankovitch cycles: the 100,000 year problem).
Precession caused by other planets in the Solar System, though considerably inferior to the effects of the Sun and Moon. They also cause an oscillation in the ellipticity of the Earth's orbit.
Cycle of variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic, or angle of tilt of Earth in relation to the plane of its orbit around the Sun. Currently it is 23.44 degrees from vertical in a cycle of 22.1 to 24.5 and back again (Milankovitch). This tilt is in the decreasing phase of its cycle and will reach its minimum value by approximately 10,000 AD (Common Era, CE).
The Earth's orbit is elliptical, so during part of the year it is further away from the Sun (aphelion) than at the opposite time (perihelion). Currently the northern hemisphere winter occurs when the Earth is closest to the Sun so it receives slightly more warmth than would be experienced with its winter at aphelion. When in the cycle this situation is reversed, with the northern hemisphere pointing towards the sun at aphelion and away at perihelion it would predispose the hemisphere to slightly warmer summers but colder winters. In the time of this author, Summer in the Northern Hemisphere occurs when the Earth is furthest from the Sun and this mitigates against other cycles which may predispose us towards global warming. However the Earth is in a more circular orbit than average and the angle of tilt is mid-way between the expected extremes.
The Earth's 'wobble': cycle of precession of the Earth's axis, influenced by the gravitational pull of the larger planets, but controlled by the Moon (Frozen Earth, p.78). Thus Polaris will eventually cease to be seen as the northern Pole Star (to be replaced by Vega in 13,000 years) before returning to its present position on completion of the cycle. Thus, the wobble concerns the celestial direction the Earth's axis points to, not the tilt itself.
every 5,730 +/- 40 years:
Half-life of Carbon 14, used to measure age of relatively recent remains up to about 150 years ago.
Earth's axis shifts about one degree every 72 years, giving rise to a slow transition of the Sun's position at the beginning of the vernal (spring) equinox each year. Measured in the constellations of the ecliptic - the Zodiacal ones - which occupy 30 degrees each - this translates into a different one of the twelve every 72 x 30, i.e. 2160 years. There is some disagreement over the calculation as to when a sign is entered and left. For a substantial part of this Chronology the ages are those of Gemini, Cancer, Taurus, Aries and Pisces.
1,500 yrs+/- 500 yrs:
Solar-driven global climate cycle hypothesis developed by Dansgaard, Oeschger and Lorius. Awarded Tyler prize in 1996 for discovering regular pattern of warming/cooling. E.g. 900 AD-1300 AD = Medieval warming.
every 210 and 87 years:
Solar cycles, related to the shorter sunspot cycle (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research). In combination, these could produce a 1,470 cycle (see every 1500 years, above).
Cycle of northerly and southerly monthly extremes of lunar declination. This is also the 223 month 'Saros' cycle, or nutation after which the pattern of lunar eclipses repeats.
Maximum/minimum Sunspot cycle.
(N.B. Billion = American usage, i.e. 1,000 million):
13.82b BP: Big Bang: Revised age of the Universe based on new European Planck Telescope data (BBC website, 21/3/13). Matter now 31.7% (4.9% matter, 26.8% dark matter), dark energy 68.3%.
13.81b BP: Universe becomes transparent (Cosmic Microwave Background) - telescopes can, in 2014, 'see' universe events as far back as this (Wikipedia, 'Dark Flow').
13.24b BP: Europe's Planck satellite data analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background indicates significant numbers of stars had formed "to alter the cosmic environment" by this time (news media, February 2015). This reconciles with Hubble observations.
13b BP: Est. age of Universe based on Cepheid variables measured by Wendy Freedman (National Geographic, Sept 2001).
10b BP: Oldest stars detected (Rees, M. Just Six Numbers).
10b BP: Milky Way forms.
4.6b BP: Formation of The Sun from the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud (Wikipedia). The planets (we assume all) of the Solar System form. Due to plate tectonics the oldest surface rock on Earth today is somewhat less aged.
4.567b BP: The composition of the Allende meteorite fragment that fell on Mexico in 1969 is the oldest so far discovered - 30 million years older than the Earth (Wikipedia). 4,567,000,000 yrs also the estimated age of solar system (Stargazing, BBC January 2013).
4.5b BP: Proto-Moon and proto-Earth collide, leaving the present Earth-Moon system.
3.16b BP: Approximate age of oldest highland, and basaltic Moon rocks as measured radiometrically.
4.47b years: The half life of uranium 238, after which the isotope decays to become lead 206. Counting the number of uranium 238 and lead 206 atoms in an igneous or metamorphic rock is a way of finding out how old it is in millions/billions of years - assuming the rate of decay has always been the same, of course. Most ancient sedimentary rocks cannot be dated radiometrically, however, so the 'cross-cutting' (intrusions, volcanic ash layers, etc.) of the other types is used to infer an date. The layering of sedimentary rocks and their 'index fossils' is then used to confirm chronological relationships. See also 50,000 BP and 13,000 BP.
4b BP: Analysis of Martian dust suggests the planet lost its magnetic field by this time (Magnetic Flip, Channel 4 11/5/03). Environment “watery” before this era (ESA Mars Mission). Afterwards, it was volcanic/sulphurous.
4b BP: 'Planetary pinball' in the Solar System (BBC Horizon, 3/3/2015). Leads to 'late heavy bombardment' of inner planets and moons. Formation of Uranus and Neptune closer to the centre of the Solar System?
4b BP: A team at Leiden University conclude that the Sun 'stole' frozen dwarf planets from a passing star 4 billion years ago - including the eccentrically orbiting Sedna (New Scientist, June 2015).
3.2b BP: Late bombardment of Moon, according to -Argon 40 dating of Apollo mission rocks, peaking at 3.2 billion years BP. (Science Daily March 29 2000, Internet.) Evidence that the Borealis Crater on Mars was formed by a massive object 2000 km in diameter...
See also 500 million years BP.
3.8b BP: It is believed that around this time that complex molecules started to create life on Earth, possibly in the environment of the hydrothermal vents at the mid-ocean ridges.
3.1b BP: Approximate age of Mare (basalt) Moon rocks (Wilkinson, John. Probing The New Solar System, p.129).
3.75b BP: Oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth ? Via Isua in Greenland (Gould, Stephen Jay Wonderful Life, p.57). Disputed in New Scientist 22/2/03 pp 28-31; other scientists think this rock metamorphosed. See 2,700 m.y. BP.
3.5b BP: About this time the Martian environment became less volcanic and more like today's (ESA).
3.5b BP: Oldest complete fossil of life-form on Earth yet found: single celled microbe clusters in sandstone on Western Australia (Independent, 14/11/2013). See also Gould, Stephen Jay Wonderful Life p.58.
2b BP: Formation of pebbles on alluvial fan on Mars - NASA'a Curiosity Rover, May, 2013.
2.7b BP: Around this time it is thought that two different kinds of single cell organism, archaean and bacterial, developed a symbiotic relationship with the bacterial cell being absorbed into the former, evolving into a mitochondrion. Hence the eventual emergence of the eukaryotic cell on which life forms from humans to amoebas share a common ancestry.
543m BP: Proterozoic eon on Earth.
2.4b BP: A new type of bacteria, cyanobacteria, appear, using sunlight to split the water molecule. Oxygen is a by-product, creating the necessary conditions for Earth based life forms to thrive, eventually. Without the bacteria, which consume carbon dioxide, the atmosphere would be very different.
2.1b BP: First (Huronian) Proterozoic Ice Age. One of the most longest and most severe in geological history. Evidence from South Africa (MacDougall, pp142-). The first of five known; next: the Cryogenian (850 million years ago).
1.9b BP: Evidence of early life in fossils of Gunflint Chert, Ontario (New Scientist, 22/2/03 pp 28-31).
1.8b BP: Appearance of eukaryotic organisms.
750m BP: Hypothetical supercontinent, Rodinia. Its existence has been challenged. In 2013 a trace - Mauritia - was said to have been found, formerly a sliver between the crust of India and Madagascar. See also 600 million years BP.
635m BP: Second Proterozoic (Cryogenian) Ice Age (see also 2.4 billion years ago); glaciation extends to the equatorial zone.
800 m BP: Evidence of true polar wander? http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S15/64/72A37/index.xml?section=newsreleases (2006).
570m BP: Earth's oceans may all have frozen several times (Nature December 1998) - caused by the inclination of the Earth's axis being tipped to 66.5 degrees? (Smith, p.183).
650m BP: Drop stones in Namibia suggest “Snowball Earth”? Only life - cyanobacteria and blue-green algae. Then after 10 million yrs without rain, volcanoes increase atmospheric CO2 to 10%. Then storms; rapid thaw (Horizon, 22/2/01).
600m BP: Fossilised excreta of worms dated to, Hebrides. Earliest evidence of gut (Times, 11/12/97.)
541 BP: Hypothetical supercontinent, Pannotia. It broke up at the end of the Pre-Cambrian period. See also 300 million years BP.
560m BP: “Sheep farmer in Australia discovers oldest vertebrate fossil” - BBC website news 24/10/03 (30 my older than previous contender from China).
522m BP: 'Cambrian explosion' of life into a myriad of multi-cellular organisms.
534m BP: The whole of Australia rotated 90 degrees; North America moves rapidly north, according to paleomagnetic evidence, say Caltech's Kirschvink (Science, 25/9/1997); the Flem-Aths would argue this was due to a crustal displacement with the poles moving to the Equator.
520m BP: Maotianshan Shales record pre-Burgess Shale assemblage of Cambrian fauna, containing examples of most arthropod ancestors.
500m BP: Another peak of activity in the bombardment of the Moon, according to the dating of Apollo rocks; albeit of smaller material than in the previous peak of 3.2 Billion BP.
500m BP: (Very approximate) - latest Sino-American research,based on the analysis of seismological waves, suggests Earth's core has two distinct regions with the iron crystals alligned differently (east-west vs. north-south). The planetary axis may have flipped from equatorial to the present polar orientation - possibly as a result of an impact. (BBC website, 10/2/2015).
430m BP: Andean-Saharan glaciation, during the late Ordovician and Silurian periods.
450m BP: Magnetic orientation of rocks suggest North Africa over South Pole? In the 1960's, scientists discovered signs of glaciation in the Sahara which support the finding (Feuerbacher, p.8).
420m BP: Andean-Saharan Ice Age, at the end of the Ordovician period (Wikipedia); the third recognised Ice Age leading up to the present. Next: the Karoo, 360 million years before present.
440m BP: England/Scotland ocean - sea creatures (Earth’s Story).
439m BP: Ordovician-Silurian extinction, killing 60% of marine genera. Caused by drop, then rise in sea levels as glaciers formed/melted? (Siegel).
400m BP: Global glaciation/ice age. Devonian period: coral fossils, with their annular and daily growth rings, indicate a day then lasted 21hrs 55 minutes and a year around 400 days (Do We Really Need The Moon? BBC2, 25/9/14).
364m BP: Late Devonian extinction, cause unknown, killing 22% of marine genera (Siegel) and 50% of all life on Earth.
260m BP: Karoo Ice Age, during the Carboniferous Period. Evidence from S. America and S. Africa. The last known Ice Age before the Quaternary.
300m BP: Massive drop in sea levels (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_level#Changes_through_geologic_time) suggesting much continental crust located over the poles, trapping water into ice.
305m BP: Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse (CRC), an extinction event probably caused by increased glaciation.
300m BP: Permo-Carboniferous Ice Age covering S. Pole super-continent of Gondwanaland - S. Africa, Australia, India (Earth’s Story, also MacDougall p.142) lasting 60 m. years. Coincides with all-time low CO2 levels.
200m BP: Widespread glaciation.
100m BP: Pangea supercontinent, comprising Laurasia and Gondwana(land).
245m BP: Permian period (DK UVE).
270m BP: Oldest surviving oceanic crust: the eastern Mediterranean, the remains of the Tethys Sea.
252m BP: Lava floods out of Siberian traps, resulting in a spike of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Rapid global warming, and acidification of the seas ensued decades later as the atmospheric dust cleared.
251m BP: Permian-Triassic extinction. Earth's worst mass extinction, (possibly, until that recently initiated by mankind), but cause uncertain (Siegel). A site off Australia's NW coast where an object about six miles across may have smashed into the Earth at this time is a candidate for the cause (Singer and Avery p.77, taken from Washington Post 14th May, 2004). 84% of marine genera perished. The only known mass extinction of insects. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1184556.stm. According to George Monbiot in his blog (May 2015), the cause could be due to the eruption of the Siberian Traps, creating a huge CO2 spike. In turn this dramatically increased the temperature and acidification of the oceans. The volcanoes erupted through the Tunguska sedimentary basin, 'cooking' the coal, oil and methane it contained - burning fossil fuel.
214m BP: An asteroid about 3 miles across crashed into Canada (Manicouagan crater). Produced, among other phenomena, a layer of molten glass detected in Triassic rocks nr. Bristol (Science, 14 Nov. 2002).
199m BP: End Triassic extinction, probably caused by lava erupting from the "central Atlantic magmatic province", an event that triggered the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and possibly global warming. 52% of marine genera perished (Siegel).
200m BP: Most of the Earth's oceanic crust is about this old, with the exception of the eastern Mediterranean - the remains of the Tethys Sea (at about 270 million years old). See 'expanding Earth' theory on the Internet: this argues that some process within the Earth has caused it to swell gradually, 'cracking' apart the outer 'shell' of the Earth's crust. An increase in mass would cause an increase in gravity, limiting the size life forms could attain (hence giantism, exemplified by the dinosaurs, could only occur when it did (Hurrell).
150m BP: Estimated age of the oldest part of the Atlantic Ocean.
70m BP: Relatively high sea levels. Super-continent Pangea breaks up.
80m BP: North American and European plates start to separate.
80m BP: All nuclides with a half life of less than 80m years seem to be absent from the known geology of the Earth region of the Solar System -
This implies a younger Earth is impossible given standard isotopic decay.
65.5m BP: Deccan Traps: over a a million cubic kilometres of lava poured out over central India. Howard Lee argues the effects of this eruption over an asteroid impact as the main reason most species, including the dinosaur ones, died out:
65m BP: Asteroid about 7 miles in diameter crashed into Yukatan Peninsula, coinciding with demise of dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period. Sea levels “fell markedly”. If this had never happened, mammal evolution would probably have been delayed for some time.
58m BP: Volcano activity from the Cuillins on Skye, leaving solidified lava flow as the Atlantic continues to open up.
55m BP: Palaeocene-Eocene ‘thermal maximum’, lasting about 100,000 years. North Pole “Subtropical” (BBC News Online, 7/9/04). According to ice cores and fossilised algae, average temperature was 20 C instead of present -1.5 C. Coal-yielding forests as far north as Spitzbergen (Svalbard) and Ellesmere Island, Canada. Was the North Pole somewhere else (see 80,000 BP)?
55m BP: Large undersea methane release caused explosions and mass extinctions.
55m BP: Tectonics: Glomar Challenger finds Rockall Ridge separated from Greenland and began sinking around this time. (Sullivan, W. Continents In Motion, MacMillan, 1974). Further sinking 40 and 15 my BP. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/12/011210163439.htm' African plate pushes into the European creating the Alps and other ranges (Science Daily 5/5/2009).
47m BP: Eocene Period, near the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum - formation of Messel pit of early mammalian fossils in Germany. Also insects, reptiles. Rainforest conditions; area 10 degrees further south than it is now.
40m BP: Trend towards global cooling (In Our Time, Radio 4, 22/10/09).
35m BP: Wave of extinctions during Eocene-Oligocene transition; “sea levels again very low”; Antarctica moves over South Pole (CDE, pp.9 and 11). Evidence in Chesapeake Bay that a bolide (comet or meteorite) a few miles in diameter gouged out a crater, nearly as deep as the Grand Canyon on impact around this time (Schoch, p.182).
30m BP: ‘Rubble pile’ meteor fireball exploded above Egyptian Sahara melting the sandstone at 1800 degs C. Similar to Tunguska event? (‘Tutankhamun Fireball’ Horizon 20/7/06).
30m BP: Estimated age of the Himalayas.
28m BP: On the 10th October 2013, New Scientist reported a black, glassy rock found in the Libyan Desert may be the remains of a comet rather than a meteorite.
20m BP: Early Miocene: a 12.5 mile wide crater is made in Canadian Arctic's Devon Island. Prior to this the local fauna and flora was quite different, e.g.shrews, rabbits, rhinos, birch etc., indicating a milder climate, similar to Minnesota (Schoch).
9m BP: Continuous West Antarctic Ice sheet develops.
5.8m BP: Oldest known human ancestor, Ardpithecus Ramidus Kaddaba, in Ethiopia (Species first discovered 1992).
5m BP: Panama isthmus forms - blocked ocean circulation, triggering Ice Age?
5m BP: Pliocene: first Mammoths.
4.4m BP: Ardipithecus ramidus female, bipedal, earliest human ancestor? Guardian, 1/10/09.
3.3m BP: Oldest hominin so far discovered, in Ethiopia. Named Australopithecus deyiremeda. Potentially one of four ancient species of human coexisting at roughly the same time (Nature, May 2015).
3.3m BP: Worlds oldest stone tools dated to, by volcanic ash and minerals. Discovery made 2015 near Lake Turkana in Kenya. Thought to be a non-Homo genus such as Australopithecus afarensis or Kenyanthropus platyops (BBC, from Nature magazine, 20/5/15. Beats previous oldest from Oldowan in Tanzania - 2.6 million.
2.58m BP -
date: Quaternary Period, the most recent Ice Age (there have been at least four others affecting the Earth, all recorded on this chronology). We are currently within an interglacial, with ice caps and glaciers retreated. Between 2.5 and 0.9 million years BP, glacial-interglacial cycles occurred every 41,000 years; since 0.9 million years BP every 100,000 years, due to changes in the Earth's orbit (Maslin, Global Warming p.12, Science Made Simple booklet, 2008).
2.5m BP: Earliest tools of hominid Homo rudolfensis) dated to around this time.
2.5m BP: Britain may still have been an island around this time (Pliocene Period) - Stringer.
400,000 BP: According to the cover article in the Dec.18th 2003 issue of Nature, a tilt of Mars' rotational axis greater than today's produced and advanced ice sheet at both poles to around 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. This subsequently melted (leaving river beds and ice deposits?) as the planet entered the current inter-glacial epoch.
2m BP: Australopithecus sediba, an erect humanoid with tiny hands, opposable thumbs and a human-shaped brain case, whose remains were discovered in a South African cave, the best candidate so far for a missing link between apes and Homo sapiens? Reported in Science, 8th September 2011.
1.9m BP: "The most profound period for hominin evolution, with the highest recorded diversity of hominin species...and major dispersal events out of East Africa into Eurasia. Ephemeral deep freshwater lakes appeared along the whole length of the East African Rift System, fundamentally changing the local environment". (Citation: Shultz S, Maslin M (2013) Early Human Speciation, Brain Expansion and Dispersal Influenced by African Climate Pulses. PLoS ONE 8(10): e76750. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076750). Hominins experience rapid increase in brain size.
1.9m BP: This was when the Earth's orbit was at its most elliptical in modern times.
1.8m BP: Skull and other bones found in Georgia are the oldest Hominids of our Genus, Homo discovered outside of Africa. Dmanisi people: shorter and with brains 40% smaller than typified by Homo erectus. This suggests an earlier wave of migration out of Africa than the orthodox 1m BP. They may have died out or returned to the mother continent. (Independent, 9/9/09.)
10,000 BP: Pleistocene Period, when temperatures were probably 4-5 degrees C lower than at present (Wikipedia).
1.3m BP: Supervolcano eruption in Idaho, U.S.
900,000 BP: Gradual Pole reversal, once established lasting until 780,000 BP (see below). Average frequency: every 200,000 years (Magnetic Flip).
1m BP: At this point in time a 100,000 year climate cycle - alternating between relatively warm and relatively cold global conditions - develops. Previously the 41,000 year cycle, matching the variation of the angle of tilt of the Earth, had dominated. Why this changed is a mystery, although the increase in greenhouse gases may have amplified the orbital effects. See http://www.aip.org/history/climate/cycles.htm
1m BP: Could humans have arrived in Britain nearly 1m yrs ago? Too early for radiocarbon dating, the Palaeomagnetic context and extant species give this approximate date for stone tools discovered in Happisburgh, Norfolk, UK (Nature/BBC News July 2010). Environmental data suggests cool temperatures. Most likely species Homo antecessor, dated to 0.8-1.2 m yrs ago and known from Northern Spain.
900,000 BP: Range to which ice cores can yield information about climate variations (Singer and Avery, p.6). National Geographic article dated July 5th 2007 claims 800,000 BP through the 3,260 metre ice core taken from central Antarctica.
850,000 BP: Early humans of unknown species first reach Doggerland (present day North Sea), according to BBC Focus magazine, November 2012.
800,000 BP: ’Rubble pile’ believed to have ignited over huge area of SE Asia (Horizon, 20/7/06).
800,000 BP: "Earliest evidence of human footprints outside of Africa discovered in Norfolk" -Happisburgh.
781,000 BP: Last scientifically estimated major magnetic pole reversal, Brunhes Matuyama, (Magnetic Flip, op.cit, based on analysis of Hawaiian lava and metallic content of other sediments; also mentioned RI lecture 1995/6 BBC2). Hancock disagrees (see 12,500 BP), and see also Wikipedia, 'Geomagnetic Reversals'.
700,000 BP: Analysis of animal bones (butchery marks) at Westbury-sub-Mendip suggest hominid habitation 200,000 yrs earlier than Boxgrove Man. (Times, 4/6/02.)
640,000 BP: Last known major eruption of supervolcano, 55 miles across, underneath Yellowstone National Park (BBC news website 11/12/13).
600,000 BP: Earliest 'Proto-Neanderthals'. See also 250,000 BP.
430,000 BP: Oldest known attempt at engraving by a hominid? Zig-zag marks on an Indonesian seashell which is over 430,000 years old collected in 2007 but not shown to reveal the marking until 2014, by digital photography.
120,000 BP: Valley of the Bristol Avon forms (Pleistocene Period).
478,000 BP: Dating of tibia of 'Boxgrove Man' (Homo heidelbergensis), an ancestor of H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis.
500,000 BP: Scientists believe oldest and deepest ice formed in East Antarctica (Feuerbacher). 'Anglian' stage of ice age affecting Britain, Thames diverted south.
500,000 BP: DNA divergence data indicates that the split between modern humans and Neanderthals took place. Evidence from tools that Heidelberg man (Homo heidelbergensis) - related to Homo erectus - used Kents Cavern, Torquay. See also 44,000 BC.
450,000 BC: Maximum extent of 'Anglian' ice advance over England (and by implication the rest of the U.K.) Birth of Britain, Channel 4, 2010.
430,000 BP: Termination V: Unusually long interglacial which lasted for 28,000 years. The warmth allowed humans and other warm blooded creatures to thrive. Temperatures similar to today, though CO2 levels are the highest now in 440,000 years ('Next Ice Age Is 15,000 Years Off", www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories 10/6/2004). Since Temination V, Ice Ages have increased in intensity but become shorter.
420,000 BP: A global temperature high, as measured by Vostok ice core, Antarctica (next: 330,000).
400,000 BP: Approximate age of Swanscombe (Kent, U.K.) skull and associated hand axes. Hoxnian interglacial, towards the end of the Lower Paleolithic. English Channel not yet formed, but giant freshwater lake trapped south of North Sea ice periodically overflowed and flooded towards the south west (see 9,000 BC). Siberian stalactites/stalagmites record warming of around 1.5 degrees C; if global warming now was as great, trillions of tonnes of greenhouse gases would be released into the atmosphere with severe economic and environmental consequences (BBC website 22/2/2013). Complete deglaciation of Southern Greenland, pushing sea levels up by 4-6 metres.
400,000 BP: Neanderthals and Denisovans thought to have diverged, evolution-wise, from modern humans.
400,000 BP: End of most recent Martian ice age according to current thinking i, 26/4/2014).
330,000 BP: Antarctic temperature/CO2 low as measured by Vostok ice core (next: 250,000 BP).
300,000 BP: Highest CO2 level until present, as measured by ice cores.
300,000 BP: Interglacial deposits found at Purfleet, Essex reveal bones of Macacque monkeys and Hyaena droppings as well as freshwater mussel shells & fish bones.
200,000 BP: 'True' Neanderthals appear.
240,000 BP: Antarctic temperature high, as measured by Vostok ice core (prev, 325,000 BP).
200,000 BP: Gullies in youngish Martian crater indicate flow of water since this time (i, 26/4/2014).
200,000 BP: Our human family tree can be traced back to 'Mitochondrial Eve', in Africa, though this is merely the oldest surviving haplotype still in existence. See also 140,000 BP.
180,000 BP: Britain joined to France by land bridge, as at 20,000 BP.
160,000 BP: Oldest Homo sapiens skulls found in Eastern Ethiopia (BBC website news, 11/6/03).
150,000 BP: Studies of human genetic variation reveal everyone living today descended from one woman who lived in Africa - coalescence of mitochondrial DNA (Olson, Mapping Human History p.27). All other lines eventually became extinct. Neanderthals in Jersey at this time, land-linked to France (Stringer, pp. 104-106), but apparently not in England.
140,000 BP: Antarctic temperature/CO2 low, as measured by Vostok ice core (next: 20,000 BP).
60,000 BP: No trace of humans (Neanderthals) in Britain during this period, despite pleasant climate. (Stringer, pp 103-106).
140,000 BP: Y Chromosomal Adam. We can trace back the male human DNA back this far, though not as far as Mitochondrial Eve - see 200,000 BP.
113,000 BP: Raised beach in Barbados dated to. Suggests cold period, with lowered sea levels.
130,000 BP: Antarctic temperature/CO2 high, as measured by Vostok ice core (prev. see 240,000 BP). It was 4.5 degrees C warmer than today. Note that the older ice core highs do not agree very well with indicators of low sea level.
115,000 BP: Eemian Interglacial, warm period, with temperatures were on average 2 degrees higher than at present . This was the previous interglacial to our present one, the Holocene. Temperatures peaked around 125,000 BP.
127,000 BP: Termination of first recent Ice Age (Feuerbacher). Oceans slower to warm than land.
90,000 BP: Greening of the Sahara. Lower sea levels may have allowed humans to migrate out of Africa successfully for the first time via the strait across the Persian Gulf to Aden (BBC 2 10/5/09). Genetics traces all present day races to this group.
120,000 BP: Climate in UK warmer than today - by about one degree Celsius. Hippos in Britain (excavated from foundations of buildings on Trafalgar Square - Stringer, p.110). Camp Century core shows Ice Age begins in Greenland. Then see 75,000 BP. First ceremonial burials.
110,000 BP: The start of the most recent glacial period within the Pleistocene division of the Quaternary. Over less than 400 yrs there was a 'sudden' shift to a colder climate globally. Desertification as moisture taken out of water cycle and frozen in growing ice caps/glaciers. Forests to grass, etc. (Singer and Avory p.xiv).
60,000 BP: Believed ‘modern’ humans settled in Asia (from Africa), eventually displacing Homo erectus.
93,600 BP: Speculative earth crust displacement (Flem-Aths, after Hapgood) Next see 52,600 BP, below.
90,000 BP: Warmth-loving species such as Hippos, Hyaenas and Lions gradually replaced in the British Isles by Mammoths, Wolves, Bison etc.Tropical species gone altogether by 15,000 BP.
82,000 BP: Sea level fell again exposing raised beach on Barbados once more? (Earth’s Story).
80,000 BP: N. Pole leaves Yukon 63N 135W (Hapgood), 5,000 years later arriving over the Greenland Sea near Svalbard. See next 75,000 BP.
80,000 BP: Approx. date of contents of Banwell bone cave, N. Somerset: Arctic Fox, Wolverine, Arctic Hare but no evidence of humans. Remains of beetles in London and Oxford suggest it is warmer further east?
69,000 BP: Supervolcano Toba eruption in Indonesia, deforests and leaves ash as far away as India. Some claim it reduced the human population on Earth to around 10,000 individuals. The Eruption at least coincided with a return to an Ice Age, which Greenland ice cores indicate lasted for over a 1,000 years. Hence the 'Toba catastrophe theory' which sits nicely with the human 'genetic bottleneck' theorists.
75,000 BP: N. Pole reaches the Greenland Sea 72N 10E from The Yukon (Hapgood, on www.poleshift.org/ps/PolePaths.html). Camp Century core on Greenland records major ice advance (Fuerbacher, p.3). See next 55,000 BP.
70,000 BP: Movement of Homo Sapiens out of Africa.. This is now believed to be the first wave of African emigration (American Journal Of Human Genetics, week beginning 18th September 2011).
68,000 BP: Astronomers calculate a binary star system (red dwarf, brown dwarf) passed through the outer reaches of the Oort Cloud believed to encircle the Solar System. (Eril Mamajek, University of Rochester, New York, reported on BBC News site 18/2/2015.)
60,000 BP: Oldest sowing needles (bone tools with eyelets) indicate humans created their own clothes. Examples from South Africa, Sweden.
55,000 BP: Partial melting of glaciers (Singer and Avory, p.xiv).
50,000 BP: N. Pole 'leaves' Greenland Sea, moves to Hudson Bay 60N 73W. Next see 17,000 BP. Charles Hapgood argued this was due to the crust slipping, not a change in the Earth's axial tilt or severe climate change. England's warmest period?
52,600 BP: Speculative earth crust displacement (Flem-Aths, after Hapgood), bringing Canada to North Pole. Next see 9,600 BC, below.
50,000 BP: Usual limit of radiocarbon dating (Wikipedia), though other sites offer 70,000 to 40,000 years. See also 13,000 BP.
50,000 BP: Small (30 metres across) asteroid hit Arizona, blasting the half a mile wide Barringer crater.
50,000 BP: Brazil: Bones, hearths, charcoal suggest indigenous population before invasion of Americas from Siberia (Ancient Voices, BBC2, 1/9/99). Remains resemble Negroid Australian aborigines.
50,000 BP: Archaeological evidence shows Australia first settled.
45,000 BP: Oldest radiocarbon dates known for Adélie penguins: sites occupied by Adélie penguins prior to the last advance of the Ross Ice Sheet at the end of the Pleistocene documented, indicating that open water conditions must have existed in the Ross Sea at that time. In addition, radiocarbon data reveal penguin colonies today are no older than 1000-2000 years old so there must have been periods in-between when no pebbles were available for nesting - these penguins nest on ice-free coastal areas.(Emslie, Stephen D. 45,000 Year Old Record of Adelie Penguins And Climate Change In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, Geological Society Of America 2nd January 2007).
45,000 BP: New evidence suggests Homo sapiens had reached Europe earlier than previously thought, and co-existed with Neanderthals for around 5,000 years (Nature, August 2014).
40,000 BP: Very cold period, according to Edinburgh Uni team’s study of corals (Times, 26/1/01), also Fuerbacher. Neanderthals hit hard - some scientists now believe the Campanian Ignimbrite eruptions were responsible, triggering a 'volcanic winter' wherein most of the Neanderthals' big game food supply and the plants they fed on perished. Homo sapiens still living in Africa avoided this cold. Possibly they had other survival advantages too.
41,000 BP: Teeth and a piece of jaw found in Italy, and Kent's Cavern, Torquay indicate early Homo sapiens presence in Europe (Nature, November 2011).
41,400 BP: (Plus or minus 2,000 years) Brief complete pole reversal - Laschamp Event - with the change in polarity lasting about 440 years, allowing more radiation through the atmosphere than normal (Wikipedia).
39,000 BP: Most recent dating of Neanderthal bones and tools by Thomas Higham of the University of Oxford, finds Neanderthals died out in Europe during this very cold period. 5,000 years earlier, Homo sapiens thought to have reached the continent. The species may well have interbred, as later skeletons with Neanderthal-type features have been found. See also 22,000 BP - could pockets have survived much longer?
40,800 BP: The oldest dated European cave art: red dots in El Castillo cave, Spain. Uncertainty over whether this could be of Homo sapiens or Homo neanderthalensis (BBC News site, 15th June 2012).
40,000 BP: 'Mungo Man', a Cro-Magnon fossil found in 1974 at Lake Mungo, New South Wales, Australia, dated to around this time though some had suggested up to 60,000 BP. 'Mungo Lady' is the earliest know cremation.
40,000 BP: Linguist estimates Andaman islands became isolated in Indian Ocean (C4 In Search of Eden, 14/5/01). These tribes carry Asian as well as African marker in DNA.
40,000 BP: Oldest human (Cro-Magnon) skull in Europe found in Cave Of Bones, Rumania. Bosphorus did not exist; humans migrated into Europe via the Danube? Many Europeans' DNA traceable to this time. Now see also 44,0000 BP.... busy period this, with humans reaching Siberia (stone tools and reindeer bone needles) from south west, following prey?
40,000 BP: Approximate age of very well preserved female Mammoth found in 2013 on Maly Lyakhovsky Island, Siberia. Corpse yielded blood (and thus the potential for cloning). Would have grazed on grass and buttercups (scientists gave the animal the name 'Buttercup') so obviously the ground was tundra, and not covered by an ice sheet.
40,000 BP: The most recent minimum in the ellipticity of the Earth's orbit. The full cycle is about 400,000 years and the last maximum around 10,000 years ago.
35,000 BP: First hunter-gatherers moved into Palaeolithic southern Europe from the Middle East. (Sykes, B. Daily Mail 11/11/00). Earliest footprints in the Americas?
35,000 BP: Dating of footprints in volcanic ash in Mexico suggest peoples arrived by sea (BBC website 5/7/05). Previously thought to be 12,500 BP via Siberian land bridge.
35,000 BP: Sulawesi, Indonesia: oldest cave paintings in the world so far discovered. Handprints, animals. Dated by Uranium decay - if correct these are virtually as old as Homo sapiens itself. Daily Telegraph, 9th October 2014. More paintings of this period found in El Castillo, Spain.
39,300 BP: Campanian Ignimbrite (Campi Flegrei (Phlegraean Fields) near Naples in Italy eruption - reduced temperatures in what was already a cold period by a couple of degrees or more - Middle to Upper European Palaeolithic Transition. Caused late Pleistocene biocultural changes and is indicated in Greenland ice core samples. Possibly related to the demise of the Neanderthals.
25,000 BP: Split in the second major wave of migrations from Africa, with the ancestors of the Han Chinese going East mostly through central Asia, the European antecedents North via the Caucasus and Turkey (American Journal Of Human Genetics, week beginning 18th September 2011).
23,000 BP: Isle of Lewis, Scotland found to be unglaciated (Nature 309, 1984, 701-3).
35,000 BP: Around this time the path from Asia to the Americas may have been open allowing humans to settle the New World in advance of the Clovis migration; genetic 'evidence' compatible (Mapping Human History p.205.)
33,000 BP: Paleolithic 'mine' found in Egypt (Schoch, p.56). No stalagmite growth around this time, indicating a cold period (whereas there was growth circa 35,000+ BP).
30,000 BP: Europe's oldest known cave paintings at Chauvet, France (Focus 6/96 p.83, also Wikipedia).
30,000 BP: Sabre tooth tigers still in Britain (Time Team, C4, 'Britain's Drowned World', 24 Apr 2007).
30,000 BP: Humans reached edge of Arctic Ocean. Peak of Ice Age 5,000 years later forced humans south to Mongolia. (IHJ:Asia.) Coldest point of Ice Age? (Singer and Avery). Extensive deserts and semi-deserts (aridification usually accompanies increased polar glaciation); sea level about 400 feet lower than today.
10,000 BP: Upper Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age); followed by Mesolithic.
15,000 BP: Glacial marine ice cores, Ross Sea.
29,000 BP: A male skeleton, the oldest ceremonial burial found in Europe, found by William Buckland in 1823 in a cave at Paviland on the Gower peninsula. Accompanied by a Mammoth skull. Weather was then 'Siberian' with an average winter temperature of -20 degrees Celsius and summer +10 degrees. Cave was not coastal then - sea level much lower. The bones covered in red ochre suggesting deposits from clothes, or painted after the flesh was stripped off.
26,000 BP: Oldest known Homo Sapiens sapiens human footprints discovered. in Grotte Chauvet cave, France. Palaeolithic boy, about 9 yrs. (Times, 11/6/99 p.13.)
19,000 BP: Coldest spell in within the last glacial period (Wikipedia).
20,000 BP: Second wave of people moved into southern Europe from Middle East. (IHJ:Eur).
24,000 BP: Disruption to the Gulf Stream, exacerbating effects of Ice Age (Iceworld, Channel 4, September 2002). N.B. Stream can boost European temperatures by 15 degrees Celsius. U.K. is 'uninhabitable', under half a mile thickness of ice.
22,000 BP: This has been traditionally regarded as when man entered New World from Siberia (TAWH p.46), but see also 50,000 and 35,000 BP. At this time, characteristic tool cultures are the last suggestion of Neanderthal presence - at Gibraltar (Wikipedia).
20,000 BP: Antarctic temperature/CO2 low, as measured by Vostok ice core (prev. 140,000 BP). This was the lowest temperature - 10 degrees Celsius lower than today - recorded in the last 800,000 years according to Jean Jouzel in Science July 5th 2007 (the warmest was 130,000 years ago during the last interglacial - 4.5 degrees C warmer than today). Britain may have been joined to France, indicating lower sea levels around this time. Ice sheet over the UK at its thickest: 1 km deep above Scotland (Landscape Mysteries: Britain before the Ice).
20,000 BP: White’s guestimate for birthdate of Adam (How Old is the Earth? p.29).
20,000 BP: Human footprints around Lake Mungo, S.E. Australia dated by luminescence in sand grains (IHJ:Aus). See also 40,000 BP.
20,000 BP: Carbon 14 dating used back as far as this.
10,000 BP: Antarctic ice cores show upward trend in temperatures - contradicts Hapgood.
18,000 BP: Irish Sea Glacier reached the Isles of Scilly. This was around the time of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This lobe is currently thought to have been squeezed southwards by the Irish and Welsh Ice Caps. This would have blocked the River Avon flowing westwards. Some geologists think the Preseli bluestones are glacial erratics taken by ice to the Stonehenge area.
19,000 BP: Pre-Clovis peoples in America? Artifacts from the earliest occupation layer at Meadowcraft Rock Shelter in Western Pennysylvania dated back to this time by radiocarbon dating (Mapping Human History, p. 199). This is controversial among archaeologists, but if correct would represent the oldest continually inhabited site in the U.S.
18,000 BP: Sea levels begin to rise significantly as world begins to warm up, slowly and irregularly.
18,000 BP: Skeleton of 3’ high Homo floresiensis, discovered October 2004. Did this branch of humanity survive another 6,000 years? (S. Times 31/10/04).
18,000 BP: Salutrian civilisation in France/Spain. Technology bears similarities to Clovis 5,000 years later. Has led to theory that these Europeans crossed Atlantic to Americas via skin boats and ice floes. Pre-Columbian. DNA evidence seems to support this mixing.
17,300 BP: Lascaux cave paintings, France depict animals (bulls, horses etc) which would not have been found in the region during during peak glaciation - Frank Edge's summer sky map of 15,000 BC theory claims some of the paintings represent Taurus and other constellations depicted to fix the summer solstice (Schoch, p.65).
17,000 BP: East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreats. North Pole leaves Hudson Bay, to arrive at its present position 12,000 BP (Hapgood). N.B. in Hapgood’s “revised version” the movement is not immediate (http://www.poleshift.org/). His theory is criticised by Schoch. Scientists accept that 'True Polar Wander' has occurred on other planets and moons and may have occurred on Earth in abrupt shifts of more than 50 degrees 790 - 810 million years BP.
17,000 BP: Posnansky's estimate. of the date of the Kalasasaya (stepped mound) at Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku, Bolivia based on obliquity of the ecliptic using archaeoastronomical techniques (Hancock pp.76- ). This has been rubbished by mainstream archaeologists who place the development of the site as a religious and cosmological centre to 300 BC - 300 AD.
17,000 BP: Possible era of the migration of Negroid peoples into S. America? Hancock cites Irwin, C. Fair Gods and Stone Faces, 1964.
17,000 BP: Cave stalagmites in Sauerland, Germany trace periods of warming and cooling of the Earth back to this period (Niggemann et al., A Paleoclimate Record of the Last 17,600 years in Stalagmites from the B7 Cave, Sauerland, Quaternary Science Reviews 22 (2003) pp 555-67.
17,000 BP: Also at this time there may have been a major volcanic eruption in Indonesia causing the demise of Homo floresiensis.
14,000 BP: First inundation of Black Sea with Mediterranean saline overspill? (BBC Focus magazine, November 2010.), See also 5,500 BC.
16,000 BP: Global warming (Olson, p.99).
15,500 BP: At Buttermilk Creek, Texas, archaeologists have found up to 19,000 stone tools. The site "has yielded more pre-Clovis tools than all other such sites combined" (Scientific American, November 2011). It is thought that these peoples entered the Americas by crossing a dry Beringia (continental shelf shared by Siberia/Alaska), "leaving their East Asian homeland sometime between 25,000 and 15,000 years ago".
15,000 BP: Pre-Clovis peoples in America? Occupational layer more than 15,000 years old near Richmond, Virginia (Mapping Human History, p.199).
13,000 BP: Lake Agassiz forms in Manitoba/Minnesota region from glacial meltwater and empties via the McKenzie into the Pacific (causing global cooling?).
14,600 BP: Early Americans in Chile, using hide-covered tents (Scientific American, November 2011)
13,500 BP: Approximate range of Older Dryas, or relatively cool period in N. Hemisphere.
11,500 BP: Bones of 'Red Deer Cave People' of Southern China analysed by Sino-Australian team. Speculation/disagreement over whether they may be a different species of human to Homo sapiens, the Neanderthals, etc. (BBC News website, 15/3/2012).
14,000 BP: Generally accepted as the approximate end of the Pleistocene, with ice caps retreating in both northern and southern hemispheres. Earth temperatures rose to approx. those of today. Sea levels rise, forests spread (Singer and Avory). North Atlantic ‘conveyor’ resumes (Feuerbacher, p.9). First of the floods caused by catastrophic melting of the ice caps Oppenheim, p.24). Extinction of two thirds of large mammal species in North America (Palaeolithic hunters or rapid climate change)? Start of the Holocene, or Ice Age interstadial epoch.
4,000 BP: 'African Humid Period' (Wikipedia)
13,000 BP: Tree ring 'long counts' (overlapping life spans) almost certainly prove that they at least have been around for over 13,000 years. See also 50,000 BP.
13,000 BP: Clovis (spear) technology in Mexico marks leap forward. Oxygen isotope records from Greenland suggest climate warm up to this point, but soon to starting getting colder again - within 700 years an ice cap had built up in Scotland (Earth Story p.166, Whyte p.2).
13,000 BP: Human remains on California's Channel Islands: Arlington Springs Man. Evidence challenges orthodox theory of migration into the Americas which requires peoples to cross the Bering Strait into central Canada and then southwards. Instead the area may have been peopled by humans migrating along the Beringian coast in boats (Nature, 2/5/2012).
10,000 BP: Ireland becomes separated from the rest of Britain by rising sea levels.
12,900 BP: Clovis peoples and the giant animals of their time vanish. New evidence suggests...."a comet, possibly 1.9 miles wide, smashed into the Earth's atmosphere" setting much of North America ablaze...evidence from "a thin layer of strange debris featuring microscopic diamond dust and...iridium...peppered across North Africa and parts of Europe. Fireballs ...crashed into much of the vast icesheet covering the northern half of North America...exactly when colossal amounts of meltwater surged into the North Atlantic, throwing ocean currents off course and plunging the world into an abrupt freeze that lasted more than 1,000 years" (Times, 29/5/07). Carl Munck claims this is around when Atlantis was destroyed.
12,900 BP: Laacher See volcanic eruption in Germany also around this time.
11,600 BP: (10,800 BC, easing off by 9,600 BC). The Younger Dryas, a cold spell affecting mainly the Northern Hemisphere (though MacDougall on p.198 admits the event "was a global phenomenon"). See also The Human Past, p.178. Temperature drops by about 15 degrees Celsius in Britain and Greenland within 10 years.Droughts prevalent in north, affecting Mammoths? (Whyte). The cooling less rapid and more intermittent than the warming at the end of the period. Around this time North American Lake Agassiz emptied huge volumes of fresh water into the St Lawrence Seaway - causing the Atlantic Conveyor to weaken/stop? (MacDougall, pp 109-110.) See also 6,200 BC (8,200 years ago)...
12,500 BP: Hancock, Bauval assert this is the Egyptian 'First Time', also the date of the last geomagnetic reversal (p.484). Cite Nature and New Scientist 6/1/1972, p.7.
12,500 BP: Assuming the angle of tilt of the Earth does reach its minimum around 10,000 AD and the cycle is 41,000 years then the maximum should have been reached around 12,500 BP. Maximum tilt implies maximum seasonality, all else being equal (see Cycles, at the beginning of this post). But it also implies polar regions receiving more solar radiation, leading to warming at those latitudes.
12,500 BP: Monte Verde, Chile site discovered in the 1990's suggests South America peopled before Clovis' ancestors entered from Asia (Schoch, p.60).
10,000 BP: Age of Leo in astrological terms.
12,350 BP: Morner and Lanser postulate (1974) a magnetic pole excursion. Based on a core taken from the Gothenburg Botanical Gardens in Sweden (hence 'Gothenburg Flip'). However other scientists have failed to validate this finding.
12,300 BP: Arabs dated The Flood to this time (Hancock Keepers of Genesis, p.242.) However, before 10,000 BC, global sea levels are said to have been 90' to 100' lower than the present day.
12,178 BP: Celestial pole inclined 30 deg. from present position (Allan and Delair, p15, taken from Noel, M. and Tarling, D.H.: the Laschamp Geomagnetic Event. Nature vol.253 pp.705-6, 1975).
12,000 BP: Many mammals including Glyptodon and Megatherium become extinct.
11,000 BP: An International team of Scientists, headed by Professor James Kennett Of Santa Barbara University conclude from layers of melt glass in the U.S, Venezuela and Syria that Earth was hit by a swarm of meteorites over 12,000 years ago, causing the annihilation of the Clovis peoples and decimation of mega-fauna including Mammoths (published in Proceedings Of The National Academy of Sciences 12th June 2012? - Daily Mail). Small Mammoths survived on Wrangel Island until around 1700 BC.
10,000 BP: Around this time the global human population estimated to be around a million (Whyte, p.50).
12,000 BP = 10,000 BC. This chronology uses 'BP' prior to this date - HGS.
10,000 BC: A Second pulse of post glacial flooding (Hancock, Flooded..., op.cit) as temperature rises. CO2 in the atmosphere reaches its lowest level (Feuerbacher, p.4). A 7 degree temperature rise in 15 years (Time Team, C4, 'Britain's Drowned World', 24 Apr 2007).
4,000 BC: Fine (alluvial) ice cores, Ross Sea. Egypt much wetter, with savannah instead of desert - =Nabtian Pluvial.
4,000 BC: Floodplain of the Avon forms near College Green (BAGAS vol. 124, 2006).
4,000 BC: Mesolithic 'hunter-gatherers' in Britain.
9,700 BC: End of the Pleistocene, beginning of the Holocene epoch (Wikipedia).
9,600 BC: Traditional date for destruction of Atlantis (Solon). Second of the great floods caused by catastrophic melting of the ice caps (Oppenheim, p.24). Tollmann's estimated date of Great Flood, ending most recent Ice Age: cites prevalence of tektites, sudden increase on Carbon 14 in fossilised trees. Caused by impact explosion?). (Schoch, p.199; original source not given in his bibliography.)
9,600 BC: Speculative date of Earth crust displacement (Flem-Aths, after Hapgood), based on sudden mass extinctions. They say North Pole moves to present location - contradicts Hapgood's 12,000 BP.
9,600 BC: Sudden warming of climate shown by Greenland ice cores which record a 14 degree jump in 15 years (Schoch, p.172). Thus the Younger Dryas gave way to the Pre-Boreal, and finally the Boreal (9,000-7500 BC).
9,500 BC: Speculative 'Phaeton' catastrophe (Allan and Delair). Also time of the disintegration of a destructive comet according to Clube and Napier; see also CDE, p.10 see also Schoch, p.205.
7,000 BC: Early Holocene climactic optimum confirmed by Antarctic ice cores. Was this the last time the Atlantic Conveyor closed down or retreated south? (Stringer, p.149.)
date: Considered an interglacial period. Planet warms to present temperatures in about 100 years. Ice sheets melted, sea levels rose, forests expanded at expense of grass and deserts shrank (Singer and Avery).
8,000 BC: 'Amazon cave findings shed new light on American prehistory' (Times, 19/4/96): evidence of the peopling of the Amazon basin independent of Clovis.
9,000 BC: Origins of Neolithic agriculture in the 'Fertile Crescent' of the Middle East/south west Asia.
9,000 BC: Rising sea levels create permanent English Channel (preceded by a 'super river' which drained the southern North Sea to varying degrees after approx 450,000 years BP) - Independent, 30th November 2009.
9,000 BC: Female Negroid skull discovered 1999 in Serra Da Capivara, NE Brazil. Cave paintings suggesting possible scenes of violence with Mongoloid peoples? Oldest (non-Mongoloid) skull in Tierra Del Fuego (Ancient Voices, BBC2, 1/9/99).
9,000 BC: ‘Japanese’ Jomon pottery - the oldest in the world (Oppenheim).
1 BC: Period during which Antarctica may have been mapped as an unglaciated archipelago by Buache, the C18th French geographer, according to Hapgood, Hancock. For a refutation of this theory see http://xoomer.alice.it/dicuoghi/Piri_Reis/PiriReis_eng.htm
8,820 BC: Amesbury, "the oldest continually occupied settlement in Britain", occupied from.
8,460 BC: Starr Carr, oldest Mesolithic habitation structure in Britain.
8,600 BC: Vedde Ash, 6-7 cubic metres of tephra found around northern Europe and attributed to Icelandic volcano Katla in one of its biggest eruptions.
8,126 BC: Beginning of Zodiacal Age of Cancer.
8,500 BC: Approximate age of the Earth according to modern day creationists, based on the alleged imbalance of Carbon 14 in the atmosphere (White, p.88). Approximate date of Noah's Flood according to other creationists who base their surmise on the archaeology mentioned in Genesis compared with the dating of the Bronze Age, etc. N.b. the half life of Carbon 14 is 5730 years; however it can be traced in Carboniferous geology.
8,500 BC: Bering Strait floods around this time.
8,496 BC: (4th June) Ancient Americans began new time cycle immediately after a cataclysm (Much, Otto in Kolosimo, P. Timeless Earth, p.136).
8,419 BC: Baltic becomes brackish and level with the Atlantic following seismic event. http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/13091
7,350 BC: First archaeologically known city, Jericho, founded.
8,100 BC: 'Cold snap' in relation to today's temperatures (Langdon, p.55).
8000 BC: Tundra retreats from British Isles (Dunbavin, p.86).
7000 BC: Pre-Boreal climatic period of Holocene.
8,000 BC: 'Pre-pottery Neolithic' in the Middle East: rapid global warming (Encarta). Since then, unusual climatic stability (Earth’s Story). Emergence of agriculture (Olson, p.92).2006: Earth’s atmosphere warmest since 8,000 BC? Mediterranean rises, eventually by around 200 feet. Cold spell ended abruptly as indicated by O-18 levels in ice cores (Feuerbacher).
8,000 BC: “Siberian” man reaches southern Chile.
8,000 BC: Underwater stone circle off Japan (Hancock, Flooded....op. cit.). This is disputed by the geologist Schoch.
8,000 BC: Kents Cavern: scallop shells used with dry moss and animal fats to provide 'candles'?
8,000 BC: The most recent maximum in the ellipticity of the Earth's orbit occurred around this time (10,000 BP).
8,000 BC: In China and the Levant humans are thought to have first developed grain crops, beginning the Neolithic revolution in farming. The Neolithic starts somewhat later in northern Europe - around 5000 BC.
4,800 BC: Britain exposed to "monsoon" (hot and moist) type climate (Langdon, p.54). Contains the so-called 'Atlantic Period', as determined by the pollen counts of trees thriving in this period. However, cold snaps between 7,400-7,200 and 6,600-6,500 BC, etc. (+see below).
3,000 BC: Strong 'seasonal' (=monsoon?) rains in Sahara, as evidenced by alternate layers of sand and clay in rocky outcrops in the Egyptian Desert. One 'lake' bigger than the UK. Note that even hotter Saharan temperatures than at present are required to create the extremes of air temperature to precipitate (literally!) a monsoon.
7090 BC: Several great volcanic eruptions (Feuerbacher).
7,800 BC: Warren Field, Aberdeenshire pit alignment dated to and in use for about 4,000 years thereafter, according to excavation (Current Archaeology 283, October 2013 pp 12-19). Speculation it could have been a lunar calendar, far earlier than was previously thought possible.
5,900 BC: About 1,000 sq. miles of dry land overwhelmed in North Sea, leaving only Dogger Bank above sea level (Independent On Sunday, p.8, 15/10/00).
7,500 BC: Finds recovered from Gulf of Cambay site in Gujarat dated to, at least (BBC News website, 19/1/02). Sonar revealed ‘lost’ city 120’ underwater.
7,500 BC: First evidence of stone tools, pottery, domestication of animals and crop growing in China (Diamond, p.329).
7,500 BC: Earth's axial tilt is 24.2 degrees, the cyclical maximum. Ever since it has been decreasing.
5,700 BC: Catalhoyuk, Anatolia (Turkey), largest and best preserved Neolithic settlement found. UNESCO World Heritage site.
7,200 BC: 'Cold snap' in relation to today's temperatures, according to Langdon.
6,500 BC: Dating of underwater village remains found off the coast of Israel at Atlit Yam, believed to have succumbed to rising sea levels. Stone built houses, wells, megaliths, cemetery. Hunters, fishers, farmers (BBC Focus, November 2012 p.40).
5,167 BC: Estimated date of Flood according to Whitcomb and Morris, i.e. 3,000 - 5,000 yrs after the birth of Abraham. Somerset peat below sea level (Peat Moors Centre).
7,000 BC: It was around this time, according to Prof. Colin Renfrew's late 1980s Anatolian hypothesis, that Indo-European languages originated in Anatolia (modern day Turkey). Reached Europe in 6,000 BC (Gibbins).This has been supported by New Zealand researchers (Nature, August 2012) using phylogenetic methods from evolutionary biology. The findings contradict the rival Steppes/Kurgen theory which holds that proto-Indo-European developed in and spread from north of the Caspian Sea in the Russian Steppes around 5,000 years B.P. Indo-European includes the Germanic languages which also led to English.
7,000 BC: Origins of Neolithic agriculture in the Yangtse & Yellow River basins, China.
7,000 BC: Stonehenge area inhabited, according to Darvill & Wainwright (see 2,300 BC). They base this on the charred remains of a seed found at the bottom of a post hole.
6,900 BC: 'Kennewick Man' radio carbon dated to. Found near the Columbia River, Washington, USA in 1996. Controversy over physical features. Thought not to be Native American, but an earlier population descended from the Japanese Ainu. (Smithsonian, 2014).
5,500 BC: Boreal period of Holocene. Ireland cut off from rest of British Isles at beginning of this period; by the end, the whole of Britain cut off from Europe(Wikipedia).
5,000 BC: As the Scandinavian ice cap melts, Neolithic Europe is repopulated by peoples from Siberia and Asia Minor (Sykes, B. Daily Mail, 11/11/00). See also entries for 40,000 and 25,000 BP.
5,000 BC: Schoch's estimate for the construction period of the Sphinx (p.50, Voices Of The Rocks) based primarily on water-induced erosion.
5,000 BC: Ross Sea secondary Antarctic climatic optimum as measured by ice cores(see also 6,000 BP and 11,500 BP).
4,000 BC: Radio carbon dating indicates most peat bogs in Britain and other western European countries were formed due to flooding following the end of the last Ice Age (Langdon, p.57). However the Wikipedia article states it is currently believed that peat around the world has been forming for 360 million years, but that most developed after the retreat of Ice Age glaciers some 12,000 years ago - i.e. 10,000 BC.
3,000 BC: Holocene 'Climatic Optimum'; Earth warmer and wetter than at present. What are now the Saharan and Arabian Deserts supported hunting, herding and some agriculture: the Neolithic Subpluvial.
6,608 BC: Pole shift ? (Munck.)
6,600 BC: Ice 'rebound' triggers major quake and tsunami in Sodermanland, Sweden. Others between 11,600 BP and 900 BP. http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/13091/InTech-Traces_of_tsunami_events_in_off_and_on_shore_environments_case_studies_in_the_maldives_scotland_and_sweden.pdf.
6,600 BC: The great Pjorsa lava flow smothered part of Iceland. This is believed to have been the largest single eruption in the Holocene.
6,500 BC: Very cold snap in Britain ?
6,500 BC: Beginnings of Neolithic agriculture in Europe: remains of food producing societies in the Aegean carbon dated to 6,500 BC at Knossos. (Agriculture introduced from the Fertile Crescent of south west Asia.)
6,500 BC: Core sample suggests The Solent first inundated by the sea - remains of a flooded oak forest. More and more land disappears in the following centuries as isostatic re-adjustment takes place following the last Ice Age. Flint tools found from just after this period. (Landscape Mysteries: Secrets of the Flood, BBC2 10/03). Boreal climate period in Europe.
6,500 BC: Present outline of Severn Estuary, UK does not yet exist. At this time the river emptied into a bay near Lundy. Human and animal footprints preserved at Goldcliff (Newport) - Stringer, p.158.
6,500 BC: Sumatra finally separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Malacca.
6,500 BC: Earliest known building in S. America - step pyramid - subsequently buried in lava (Kolosimo).
4,500 BC: Migration of pre-Saharan peoples west, south west and into the Middle East as the land dried out almost completely.
4,500 BC: Falling sea levels; falling water table in North Africa.
4,500 BC: Origins of Hebrew (Thompson).
5,970 BC: Beginning of Zodiacal Age of Gemini.
6440 BC: Kurile Lake caldera, formed by a second major volcanic eruption at the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia.
4,700 BC: Vespasian's Camp near Stonehenge - Mesolithic domestic site.
6,200 BC: Catalhoyuk fresco depiction of volcanic eruption - oldest known image of active volcano.
6,200 BC: Or, the '8.2 kiloyear event'. Sudden drop in northern hemisphere temperatures lasting over 150 years placing it between the Younger Dryas and Little Ice Age in severity. Lake Agassiz believed to have suddenly emptied, for the last time, into Hudson Bay. This could have affected the Gulf Stream/North Atlantic Conveyor. See also 12,800 BP.
6,200 BC: Changed chemical composition of an 11,000 year old stalagmite in White Scar Cavern, Yorkshire indicates a 150 year or so drop in temperature by 1 to 2 degrees.
6,200 BC: Stonehenge activity pauses around this time, until the Neolithic peoples reach Great Britain in 4000 BP.
6,100 BC: Tsunami originating from the coast of Norway destroys what remains of Mesolithic Doggerland, cutting Britain off from Europe (BBC Focus November 2012, p.37). As explored later on The Stone Age Tsunami (Channel 4, 30/5/2013) this was caused by the earthquake-triggered Storegga Slide. Evidence includes a thin sandy layer containing the microscopic remains of smashed diatoms found between clays along points of the Scottish (e.g. at Montrose) and Northumberland coasts. This water would have receded, unlike the flooding caused by the final release of Lake Agassiz around 4,200 BC, but Doggerland is believed to have been finally abandoned around 6,000 BC. Reiterated in BBC Horizon programme of19/8/15, 'The First Britons'.
5,900 BC: Cold snap prior to the generally mild Atlantic Period.
6000 BC: Cyclical maximum in the tilt of the Earth's axis, to about 24.5 degrees (whereas at present it is 23.4 degrees).
6,000 BC: The isostatic uplift of Northern Europe slows down.
6,000 BC: Last of the sea floods which drowned parts of SE Asia, creating the Indonesian islands; mass emigration from area (Oppenheim, Eden in the East).
6,000 BC: Peat deposits indicate much of Somerset below sea level. Renewed rise in sea levels also leads to inundation of Severn valley in Britain. Followed by 6,000 years of relative stability (Walker, Frank The Bristol Region, p.62).
6000 BC: African cave paintings dated to 8000 BP show 'athletic' humans, a variety of Savannah mammals and maybe even human swimmers at Gilf Kebir, Egypt (Orbit, BBC 2, March 2012).
6,000 BC: Bouldnor Cliff, Isle of Wight: wheat grains discovered in Solent archaeology, preserved in anaerobic conditions. Suggest trade in cereals, too early for farming in British Isles? Wood supports dating. Local sea level rise of 120 metres?
6,000 BC: Garden of Eden; Adamites (Rohl, Legend, pp 403-).
6,000 BC: Tree ring dating, which supports Carbon 14 estimates, effective back to this time.
3000 BC: East Antarctic climatic optimum as measured by ice cores. Warm, moist, 'Atlantic' climate period succeeds Boreal in Europe (Wikipedia, see above).
2,500 BC: Saharan wet phase. Pastoral rock paintings at Tassili, Hoggar etc. (TAWH p.45).
5,335 BC: Dating of silt in pit 9580 in Stonehenge car park in which a piece of Bluestone was discovered. Langdon contends this proves the monument is older than traditionally thought, the post hole being where there was a mooring post for the boats/ships which brought the stone from the Preseli Hills in Pembrokeshire.
5,500 BC: Black Sea cores indicate marine deposits superseded freshwater after over 15,000 yrs (BBC Horizon ‘Noah’s Flood’, 16/12/96). Transition from freshwater to saltwater molluscs - almost certainly due to rising sea levels bursting though a natural dam across the Bosphorus around 5,600 BC (CDE, p.15). Ryan and Pitman also contend this inundation was the real seed of the memory of the Noachian Flood. Their argument is partly based on an archaeological discontinuity in a tell excavation in Turkey.
5,500 BC: Rapid flooding of Arabian Gulf (Oppenheim). Final melting of ice-age ice? Big retreat of West Antarctic ice sheet? (Gibbins, D. Atlantis; historical notes, p.453).
5,500 BC: Migration of Cain’s descendants to Susiana (Rohl, Legend, p.408). Susiana corresponds to Elam in present day south west Iran. See also 17,000- 14,000 BP.
3,000 BC: Atlantic period of Holocene; Elm, Oak, Lime; Summer and winter 1-2 deg. warmer than present, rainfall 10-15% higher (Dunbavin, p.87). Comparatively moist in Egypt/Saharan areas, corresponding to Neolithic occupancy. (P.I.S.O.W.C.)
5,400 BC: Radio carbon dating of new Stonehenge finds (April 2013). Site possibly occupied as early as 7,500 BC. Archaeology led by David Jacques.
5,400 BC: The oldest settlement of Sumaria, Eridu, thought to have been founded near the mouth of the Euphrates around this time. Became very populous by 2,900 BC and Rohl contends it was the site of the original 'Tower of Babel', a Ziggurat.
5,260 BC: Dispilio Tablet, excavated in Greece in 1993/4, radiocarbon-dated to. Bears inscribed markings - form of Neolithic writing? Further tablets found at Tartaria in Romania dated to 5,300 BC (Wikipedia). However, most linguists believe the earliest proven form of writing is cuneiform, from Mesopotamia around 3,600 BC.
5,000 BC: Neolithic begins in northern Europe. Farming of cereals.
5,000 BC: Ice wedges under the permafrost in the Lena River delta area of Siberia indicate winter warming over the last 7,000 years.
5,000 BC: Possible geological record of a tsunami hitting the area of Sullom Voe, Shetland (Radio Times, 2/6/07).
3,000 BC: Average global temperatures reached their maximum and were 1-2 degrees warmer than today. This period is known as the Climatic Optimum and prompted many of the great ancient civilisations to flourish in the 'Fertile Crescent' of the Middle East, the Indus Valley and later, in China.
1,000 BC: A genetic mutation allows Europeans to develop lactose tolerance.
4,900 BC: Early Neolithic tomb found in 2010, at Buthiers-Boulancourt, about 40 miles (65km) south of Paris, revealed a man of about 50 who had been trepanned and undergone surgery to have an arm cleanly removed (Times, 25/1/2010).
4,800 BC: Nabta stone circle in Egypt, with 'perfect' e-w alignment (Schoch).
4,200 BC: Sea level around Great Britain stabilises (Stringer, p.158).
4,200 BC: In November 2012 it is announced that archaeologists working in Bulgaria have discovered Europe's oldest prehistoric town a thousand years older than the earliest Greek sites. It is near the Black Sea resort of Varna, may have contained around 350 inhabitants, and possibly owed its wealth to salt extraction.
3,000 BC: Ancient civilisation of Sumer, in Mesopotamia (now southern Iraq).
4,300 BC: Final sinking of Atlantis, according to Langdon.
3,814 BC: Beginning of the Zodiacal Age of Taurus.
4,236 BC: Earliest known year 'date', with the founding of the Egyptian calendar.
4,200 BC: Catal Huyuk mural shows earliest known representation of an erupting volcano (in Turkey?)
4,004 BC: Estimated date of Creation by the C17th Archbishop of Armagh, James Ussher, drawing on the genealogies and king lists of the Old Testament.
4,000 BC: Burial chamber beneath Stanton Drew stone circle, Somerset dated approx. to this time - 1,000 years older than the stones themselves? http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/news/latestnews/2010/January/Pages/Stanton%20Drew%20now%201000%20years%20older.aspx
4,000 BC: Evidence from the teeth of humans buried in kists on Shetland proves they were farmers (BBC Horizon: 'The First Britons' 19/8/2015). However there was a period when they temporarily ate marine food: a sand layer inland suggesting drier, perhaps cooler weather prevailed tempering farming activity.
4,000 BC: People of Eridu established trading centre on Bahrain (Rohl, Legend, p.410).
4,000 BC: “6,000 year old ‘train’” to New Guinea and Bismarck’s (Oppenheim, p.170). Sub-pluvial period of wetter, more Mediterranean-like climate in the Middle East.
3,500 BC: Domestication of the horse in the Volga-Ural region.
3,000 BC: Somerset peat drying out. Rising curve of sea levels begins to flatten out, to present-day. The remaining ice sheets of the world may now be in equilibrium with the climate (RMS 1966 conference p.12, see bib.)
2,500 BC: Neolithic in Britain. Civilisations flourish in regions that are now desert, including Egypt and the Sahara. Around this time the global human population estimated to be around seven million, sustained by advances in agriculture (Whyte, p.5).
4,000 BC -
present: Glacial marine ice cores in Ross Sea, opposite New Zealand. (Hapgood, p.235), suggesting lower temperatures. Temperatures peaked and remained stable for 2,000 years (Feuerbacher, p.4). Europe north of the Alps became increasingly cold and wet.
3,900 BC: Start of a rapid aridification in the Sahara region and cooling elsewhere.
3,761 BC: Date for creation of the world, according to the Jewish calendar.
3,750 BC: Neolithic agriculture reaches Ireland, based on chronology of plant remains (Journal of Archaeological Science, vol.51 November 2014, pp.181-205).
3,600 BC: Pictographs, first form of writing, appeared: Babylonian Cuneiform (Mesopotamia).
3,600 BC: Nubian city/temple (Into Africa with Henry Louis Gates, BBC2 17/7/99 and ff).
3,200 BC: Late Neolithic sea level rises around Britain (BAGAS v.124, 2006).
3,520 BC: Modern Biblical chronology places Noah around this time - 2500 BC disputed by Aardsma (see 2450 BC).
3,500 BC: In Britain the first hunter-gatherers have become the first farmers. Long barrows begin to appear; henges, cursuses. Sea levels around Britain reach approximately their present level (BBC Focus magazine, November 2012 p.37).
3,500 BC: Binary asteroid glanced the Moon,creating craterlets Messier and Messier A. Orbit did not resettle until about 1500 BC? (See below). Recorded in rock art, Newgrange? Violent changes in Earth weather resulted (Times, 12/8/02.)
3,500 BC: South Chinese expand to and settle on Taiwan. Beginning of their Austronesian (language family) speaking colonisation of the western Pacific excluding Australia and most of New Guinea. N.b. this language family not to be confused with Austro-Asiatic, also Chinese in origin, which spread south into Indo-China (Diamond, p.341). Contradicts Oppenheim, op.cit.
3000 BC: Low tree ring growth events, attributed to wobbles in the axis of rotation by Dunbavin in Under Ancient Skies: Ancient Astronomy and Terrestrial Catastrophism (2005). Next similar: 2345 - 2000 BC. N.B. such wobbles, if they occurred, would present themselves in erratic movements of the Moon, and may explain the megalith builders fascination with its heavenly position.
3000 BC: Close encounters between asteroid Olijato and Earth (Schoch, p.205).
2,500 BC: Approximate dates for 'Buestonehenge' near Stonehenge, Wiltshire based on ditch and subsoil stone settings discovered in 2008/9 and results published in British Archaeology, Jan/Feb 2010.
1,200 BC: Bronze Age in the Near East (followed by Iron Age and preceded by Stone Age). Corresponds to 1,300 - 700 BC in British Isles and other parts of Western Europe.
3,250 BC: Approximate age of the 'Otzi the Iceman' body, found in the Alps in 1991.
3,200 BC: Newgrange prehistoric monument in Ireland constructed.
3,200 BC: "5,200 year old calendar" (Freeman). Is Alberta's 'Old Big Arrangement' cairn even older than Stonehenge?
3,123 BC: (June 29th): scientists examining 700 BC clay tablet with cuneiform writing deduce it is a copy of a record made by a Sumerian astronomer of an asteroid hitting the Earth (in the Austrian Alps at Kofells). This event may also be remembered in several ancient myths including the Sodom and Gomorrah and Phaeton stories. Times, 31/3/2008 p.13.
3,114 BC: 'Year Zero', or starting date of the Mayan calendar (Dunbavin). August 12th 3114 BC to be precise; believed to have followed a cataclysm. Mayans believed their original homelands (east across the Atlantic?) were destroyed before this calendar, which expired in December 2012.
3,100 BC: "Was the earth’s' rotation disturbed by a comet impact ?" (Dunbavin, Paul. The Atlantis Researches). Others, incl. David Furlong, writing in Kindred Spirit Quarterly issue 41, p.35 have linked these last three events with the translocation of Atlantean culture. Evidence of dramatic rising/falling sea levels and drying of Sahara contemporaneous.
3,100 BC: Great Flood? (Rohl, Legend, pp.411 ff).
1,500 BC: Stonehenge developed, initially in the form of a bank and ditch. Stones not added until about 2,400 BC (Wikipedia).
3,095 BC: Narrow ring event in Irish oak tree-ring chronology (Schoch, p.248).
3,005 BC: Some creationists suggest this is when an asteroid impacted Yucatan peninsula bringing to an end the Age of the Dinosaurs. This date is calculated from their theory of an 'accelerated decay' of Carbon 14.
3,000 BC: Approximate end of Holocene Climatic Optimum. Arctic ice had become 50% thinner than at present according to research by Danish team (Science, 4/8/11). During the Optimum, the average temperature in northern hemisphere about 4 degrees Celsius warmer than present though southern hemisphere slightly cooler than now.
3,000 BC: New excavations suggest stones brought to Stonehenge earlier than previously thought - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/wiltshire/7660860.stm
3,000 BC: Radio carbon dating of 'lesser wall' on Orkney's Ness of Brodgar; contemporary with Skara Brae etc. History of Ancient Britain: Orkney's Stone Age Temple BBC2 1/1/2012. Further date suggests site systematically abandoned about 2,300 BC, possibly through change in belief systems/transition to Bronze Age. http://www.orkneyjar.com/archaeology/nessofbrodgar/excavation-background-2/
3,000 BC: Austronesian speakers reach the Philippines (Diamond, p.341).
3,000 BC: Oldest living tree, a Bristlecone Pine - thought to be at least 5,000 years old.
3,000 BC: Earliest formal calendars date from around this time.
2,400 BC: Late Neolithic in Britain.
1,000 BC: Greenland ice sheets smaller than they are now - indeed the smallest it has been in the last 10,000 years (University of Buffalo, 22/11/13). http://wattsupwiththat.com/2013/11/22/study-greenland-ice-sheet-was-smaller-3000-5000-years-ago-than-today/
800 BC: Somerset peat suggests rainfall increasing. Sub-Boreal period; similar to today, possibly drier; deforestation by humans; slight glacial advances (Dunbavin). Follows ‘Piora oscillation’ (Furlong).
2,900 BC: Invasion of Egypt by ‘Followers of Horus’/’Dilmunites’, leading to the first of the Pharaohs (Rohl, Legend, p.416.) Most likely date for Biblical/Sumerian Deluge? - CWH.
2,750 BC: Evidence of localised flooding during Early Dynastic period in Sumer (CDE, p.9). Possibly referred to a thousand years later by a cuneiform tablet (see this Chronology, below).
1,450 BC: Flowering of Bronze Age Minoan civilisation which arose on Crete. Ended by some kind of catastrophe; tsunami theory (Timewatch, BBC2, 20/4/07) suggested by shells, pottery debris. Main tsunami estimated to have hit island 1,600 BC.
2,697 BC: Starting date in the Taoist calendar.
2,620 BC: Traditional date of Pyramid/Sphinx construction (see also 2,500 BC).
2,600 BC: Cooling 'event' with relatively wet conditions in many parts of the world (Singer and Avery).
2,600 BC: Approximate age of Silbury Hill (WDP, 28/6/96).
2,600 BC: Approximate late Bronze Age date for the fall of Troy based on archaeological evidence. See also 1194 BC. Recorded by Homer about 8 BC.
2,600 BC: Bluestones first used at Stonehenge (Wikipedia). These are the ones believed to have originated in the Preseli hills in Pembrokeshire and may have reached Salisbury Plain by glacial action or human agency.
2,400 BC: Sarsen stones first used at Stonehenge.
2,500 BC: End of Saharan 'wet phase' (see 6,000 BC, above).
2,500 BC: Traditional Biblical chronology fixes the time of Noah about here.
2,500 BC: Approximate age of Great Pyramid, based on alignment to polar stars (National Geographic, Sept 2001).
2,500 BC: Approximate age of Marden Henge dwelling (floor surface discovered in 2010). This henge, almost invisible except through aerial photography, is mid-way between Avebury and Stonehenge and bigger than both.
2,500 BC: R1b invaders (purveyors of red hair) expand westwards across Europe from the Balkans. Develop the Unetice culture.
2,450 BC: Dr Aardsma's fixing of the date of the Exodus, based on a revision of the traditional Biblical chronology. http://www.biblicalchronologist.org/about/bio.php
2,450 BC: Jericho destroyed? (Aardsma, see above).
700 BC: Bronze Age in Britain. Individual 'Chieftain' burials begin; round barrows more common. Stone avenues, standing stones: "Golden Age of the Megalith Builders" (Butler). Slight drying out of Avon salt marsh, or fall in sea level? (Cox, et al).
2,119 BC: Tower of Babel episode? (White, based on Biblical chronology.)
2,350 BC: Date of the Noachian Flood, based on Ussher - Whitcomb and Morris, (p.391). Other conservative Creationists place it more generally between 2,500 and 2,300 BC....or even 8,500 BC (op cit).
870 BC: Approximate time range of the Sub-Boreal; hyper-arid period in Egypt and some other areas of North Africa (P.I.S.O.W.C.).
2,345 BC: Earth's axial tilt changed, according to some Creationists, maybe to 28 degrees or more, but a slow precession has brought it to the 23.45 degrees of today, thus moderating the climate away from seasonal extremes .
2,000 BC: Narrow ring events in Irish oak tree-ring chronology (Schoch, p.248), also Dunbavin, Under Ancient Skies... Previous one 3095 BC; next: 1628 BC on 500 - 1,000 yr cycle.
2,300 BC: Beaker people start to arrive in Britain. First appearance of round barrows.
2,300 BC: Orkney's Stone Age temple at Brodgar seems to have been abandoned (see 3000 BC and climate events below).
2,300 BC: Erection of the 'bluestones' at Stonehenge, according to Darvill and Wainwright from their 2008 dig. They say this coincides with the date of the high status burial of the 'Amesbury Archer'. N.b. Some such as Dr Olwen Williams-Thorpe question the notion of these stones being brought by man from Preseli, favouring the eastward expansion of Welsh glaciers at the peak of the most recent Ice Age.
1,800 BC: Period of the Ice Age, according to some Creationists. At the end of this period the sea level obviously rose. Carl Munck, the archaeocryptographer, placed Noah's Flood and a major Chinese Flood at 4,300 years ago, or approximately 2,320 BC. Go back another 4,300 years to 6,640 BC and he claims this is when a polar shift took place. And a further 4,300 years takes us to 10,900 BC when he thought Atlantis was destroyed.
2,200 BC: The '4.2 kiloyear aridification event' (Wikipedia), which caused world-wide climatic catastrophes and civilisation upheaval including the gradual collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. Change to drier conditions, lowering of lake levels, and reduced river discharge. But, flood disasters in China, northern India, Greece, Australia and USA (CDE, p.16). Coincided with a cooling in the North Atlantic known as the Bond Event.
2,200 BC: Remains of comet destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah ? (Times, 30/3/97.)
2,167 BC: Estimated date of Abram’s birth (Whitcomb and Morris, p.478.)
1,658 BC: Beginning of the Zodiacal Age of Aries (to AD 1 or AD 498, depending on Neil Mann or Heindel-Rosicrucian schemes).
2,100 BC: Erection of the 'bluestones' at Stonehenge, according to Darvill and Wainwright (see 2,300 BC and 7,000 BC).
2,049 BC: Seahenge (Norfolk, UK) trees felled, according to dendrochronological/radiocarbon dating. Early Bronze Age in Britain.
2,000 BC: Austronesian speakers (from China/Taiwan) reach Sumatra (Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel p.341).
2,000 BC: Sea levels rise to about 3 metres above present height (RMS conference, p.12).
1,000 BC: Brief warming trend.
1,600 BC: Old Babylonian empire.
1,350 BC: Traditionally, the period estimated for the Biblical Joseph. See also 1662 BC.
1,750 BC: A cuneiform tablet, discovered in the Middle East in 1948, mentions an oncoming Flood and gives instructions for the Babylonian Atra-Hasis to build an ark of ropes, ribs and bitumen. The Ark was to be circular and about half the size of a football pitch. The animals went in "two by two". Refers to events of about 1,000 years before. (The Real Noah's Ark, Channel 4, 14/9/2014.)
1,700 BC: Probable end of Indus Valley (Harappan) civilisation.
1,600 BC: Final extinction of Mammoths of Wrangel Island (Wikipedia).
1,600 BC: Low tree ring event (Dunbavin, Under Ancient Skies...): axial wobble?
1,600 BC: Pavlopetri, 'City Beneath The Waves' (BBC4, 1/8/2012), about 5,000 years old and thought to have flourished but now 3-4 metres under water off the south coast of the Greek Peloponnese. The town is believed to have been submerged by successive earthquakes around 1,000 BC.
1,682 BC: Arrival of Israelites in Egypt (Rohl, Legend).
1,662 BC: Biblical Joseph born (Rohl, p.330).
1,600 BC: Radiocarbon dating of the eruption of Thera and its effects on Mediterranean Minoan civilisation.
1,628 BC: Radiocarbon data from Irish Bog Oaks, and Bristlecone pines show poor growth - result of Thera volcanic eruption? Confirmed by Schoch, p.248. Previous low: 2345 BC; next: 1159 BC. Rain of sulphuric acid detected in layers of Greenland ice (Gibbins). Sunday Times of 17/3/96 article suggests volcanic ash caused the Biblical seven year famine. N.B. Exodus 13:21 refers to a "pillar of cloud/fire" -volcanic dust?
1,626 BC: Supposed date for the eruption of Thera, destroying Santorini 'Atlantis' (Dunbavin, p.159, and BBC’s Ancient Apocalypse 2/8/01). A.A. states this was the second largest eruption of all time, after the 1815 one of Tambora in Indonesia. BBC2 Timewatch programme of 20/4/07 propounds tsunami theory for the ultimate destruction of Minoan power, as Crete is bombarded with waves after the eruption. Shells, pottery found 1 km inland dated to match the time of the blast. Minoan civilisation partially recovers, until probable invasion by the Myceneans in about 1420 BC.
1,560 BC: Alternative date of the Deucalion Flood, caused by a cometary (Phaeton) impact according to Beaumont (1932) - CDE. See also 1,528 BC.
1,535 BC: Estimated date of the birth of Moses (Rohl, David. Test of Time, conclusion 17/9/95 Ch.4).
1,528 BC: Estimated date of the Deucalion Flood (Calvesius/Helvicus and chronology of St Jerome).
1,500 BC: Traditional Bronze Age chronologies date the Santorini /Minoan eruption to this time. Galanopolous and Bacon (1969) argued the date Plato gives as 9000 years before himself should be read as 900 years should Solon, who his informant referenced, have made an erroneous translation from the old Egyptian number system. Plato lived 300 BC, Solon about 300 years before that so 600 plus 900 years = 1500 BC. But see also 1,628 BC.
1,500 BC: Moon settles into current orbit after an asteroid incident? (See 3,500 BC.)
1,000 BC: 3,500 year old ‘train’of people leaving SE Asia finally arrives in Eastern Polynesia (Oppenheim). See also 6000 BC for the origin of this migration.
400 BC: Olmec civilisation in Mexico: renowned for their 'Negroid' head sculptures (Hancock, Van Sertima), but mainstream archaeologists point to the epicanthric folds of the eyes which suggest an eastern origin.
1,500 BC -
300 AD: Renewed growth in continental glaciers with sea level drop of between 2-3 metres below present day levels (www.physical geography.net).
1,495 BC: Estimated date of the Biblical Exodus (Velikovsky).
1,460 BC: Estimated date of the Deucalion flood based on the chronology of St Jerome (Wikipedia). See also 1528 BC.
1,450 BC: Venus passes close to Earth, according to Velikovsky.
1,447 BC: Estimated date of Exodus, 13th Dynasty (Rohl, Test of Time, p.330).
1,420 BC: Mycenean invasion of Crete?
1,390 BC: Volcanic blast related to Thera? (Feuerbacher).
1,320 BC: Traditional, estimated date of the Exodus (BRE and C). See also 2450, 1460 and 1447 BC.
1,300 BC: Grimspound, a Bronze Age settlement develops on Dartmoor. The concentration of Bronze Age (2,500-800 BC) sites in this part of Devon indicates an equable climate.
1,280 BC: Santorin professor's estimated date for the Exodus (Sunday Times 17/3/96).
1,250 BC: Herodotus place the fall of Troy at this date.
1,250 BC: Academic historians’ estimate of date of the Exodus (not long after monotheist Akhenaten, who died around 1336 -1334 BC).
1,200 BC: A turning point in European and Near Eastern history. In Central Europe the Halstatt culture, which is traditionally associated with the classical Celtic civilisation, supplants the Urnfield culture. Near Eastern civilisations from Greece to Egypt are destroyed by the 'Sea Peoples', probably technologically advanced Indo-European warrior peoples from Steppes/Balkans, as the Bronze Age nears its end. (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml#S21-U106)
1,200 BC: Villages, first thought to have developed during the Stone Age, replacing isolated settlements in Britain.
1,184 BC: Trojan War based on Eritosthenes' estimate. Herodotus places it at 1250 BC.
1,159 BC: Egyptologists place the Hekla 3 eruption at 1159 BC to explain famines under Rameses III in the context of a wider Bronze Age upheaval.
1,141 BC: Virtually no summer growth rings of British trees (BBC2 Coast, August 2005)- possible famine? "Star of Anath" fell on Libya, according to Merenptah, Egyptian text. Was it a comet? Caused the flight of refugees into Egypt? Confirmed by Schoch, p.248 (Irish oak tree ring chronology; prev. 1628 BC; next: AD 540).
1,150 BC: Most recent climatic disturbance. Invasion of Egypt by "sea peoples", collapse of Hittite empire, 'dark age' in Greece for 300 years (Dunbavin, p.159).
1,010 BC: First year of King David's reign (Rohl, p.328).
1,000 BC: Climatic deterioration in the British Isles, which became cooler and wetter. Narrowing tree rings in Ireland for 18 years. Bronze Age retreat from uplands. Acid deposition.
1,000 BC: Successive earthquakes submerge the oldest known submerged archaeological town site of Pavlopetri in Greece.
1,000 BC: Hekla 3 volcanic eruption, its most severe of the Holocene, vaguely tied to this date.
931 BC: Traditional dates for the reign of Solomon.
900 BC: Estimated date of Cascajal block of Olmec writing found in Mexico (Independent, 15th Sept 2006).
700 BC: Old Testament book of Deuteronomy composed, according to most scholars.
800 BC: Approximate dating of Bronze Age Uffington White Horse, by dating the silts underneath the chalk.It is the only chalk hill figure in Britain proven to be prehistoric.
500 BC: Somerset peat relatively dry (Peat Moors Centre).
1 BC: Cold snap, in relation to today's temperatures, during 'Sub-Atlantic Period' (Langdon).
776 BC: First Olympic Games.
476 BC: Beginnings of the Great Wall of China (Wikipedia).
750 BC: Iron smelting brought to Britain, triggering the Iron Age.
664 BC: “Egypt ruled by Kushite Pharaohs” (TAWH, p.45); 25th Dynasty.
712 BC: Kushite invasion of Egypt (Rohl, Legend, p19).
600 BC: Period in which the sources for Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers are said to have been written by the 'Yahwist'. Some place the compositions a century or two later. See also 571-486 BC.
600 BC: Time of Tartessus/os or Tarshish and it's wealth supplying the other Mediterranean cultures. Located in Southern Spain near Cadiz, this harbour city has been linked with Atlantis. Herodotus placed it west of the Pillars of Hercules. The archaeological site at Cancho Roano, Spain, which also betrays Phoenician influence, could be a Tartessian sanctuary, dating from the 6th Century BC to 370 BC.
560 BC: Time of Solon, who received the Atlantis story from the Egyptians. The disaster was supposed to have been 9000 years before his time, i.e. 9600 BC (see above).
500 BC: Lane Fox estimates ‘priestly’ first version of the Biblical Creation written.
200 BC: Cold period preceding 'Roman warming' (Singer and Avory, p.xv).
539 BC: Jews captured and exiled in Babylon.
587 BC: Second deportation of the Jews to Babylon; Jerusalem destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar's men.
486 BC: 'Priestly' source of Old Testament writings, according to most current scholars. See also 700-600 BC.
400 BC: Approximate time of the Buddha.
479 BC: Confucius.
550 BC: Mid-point of Mayan 'Golden Age' in terms of calendrical cycles.
539 BC: Persian conquest of Babylon, leading to the liberation of the Jews.
537 BC: Death of ('King') Arthur in Annales Cambriae.
500 BC: Celts start to arrive in Britain from Central Europe. Complexion of British society begins to change.
500 BC: Around this time the global population is estimated to be about one hundred million (Whyte, p.5).
500 BC -
present: Sub-Atlantic climatic period of Holocene; it becomes slightly cooler and wetter in Western Europe (Dunbavin).
479 BC -
323 BC: 'Classical' period of Greek art and sculpture; sudden emergence of sophisticated, naturalistic representation of the human body.
399 BC: Socrates.
450 BC: Temperatures rise again, reaching a peak around 1000 AD. Trend then broadly downward (Feuerbacher, p.4).
450 BC: Most scholars believe this is roughly when the Old Testament books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers were written, based on prior sources. See also 900-700 BC for Deuteronomy.
432 BC: Greeks (Meton) work out 18.6 year cycle of the Moon (northerly and southerly monthly extremes).
347 BC: Time of Plato.
322 BC: Aristotle.
347 BC: Atlantis story surfaces in Plato's Timaeus and Critias Dialogues, passed down from an ancestor who live 200 years before.
331 BC: Alexandria founded by Alexander The Great.
246 BC: Royal Library of Alexandria opened, under the Ptolemys.
212 BC: Archimedes of Syracuse.
250 BC: Most of the Old Testament completed by this date (Fox).
221 BC: China unified politically under first Qin Emperor, Qin Shi Huang.
209 BC: Terracotta army figures buried for Emperor.
100 BC: Silk Road established (Olson, p.124).
200 BC -
600 AD: Global warming. In 829 and 1010 AD ice formed on the Nile and 800-1 AD the Black Sea froze. (900-1300 AD: medieval warming/Little Climate Optimum followed by Little Ice Age, 1300-1850 AD).
146 BC: Library of Carthage burned.
60 BC: Pergamon (Asia Minor) coins dated from the Antikythera wreck. This yielded pottery from the same period and the 'Antikythera mechanism' which has been claimed to be the oldest known analogue computer. Some scientists have tentatively attributed its design to Archimedes. Cicero (106-43 BC) described similar mechanisms being available earlier and may have their origins in Babylonian, rather than Greek design.
55 BC: First invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar.
43 BC: Julius Caesar adds 80 days to the year.
27 BC -
476 AD: Roman Empire in Western Europe.
12 BC: Appearance of Halley’s Comet (Lane Fox).
4 BC: Most likely date range for the birth of Jesus because Herod died in 4 BC, according to biblical scholars. On 17th April, 6 BC Jupiter was in Aries along with the Moon, Sun and Saturn all of which 'presaged' the birth of a great king. Jupiter shortly went into retrograde motion, then became stationery for a while, recalling the description of the Star of Bethlehem's behaviour in Matthew's gospel.
1 BC: The year before 1 AD, there being no concept of 'zero' in the west when the dating system was devised in 525 AD.
TODAY: Earth's orbit similar to that of 400,000 years ago; we are 10,000 years into an interglacial but next cold spell not expected for another 15,000 years....National Geographic, 28/10/2010.
BAGAS- Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society Proceedings.
BP 'Before Present', or before 2000 AD.
BRE and Bible Reader’s Encyclopedia Concordance.
Caltech- California Institute of Technology.
CE - Common Era, the same as but now the preferred designation to AD.
CWH-Chronology of World History: the Ancient World. H.E.Mellersh.
DK-Dorling Kindersley (publishers).
EITE- Eden in the East. Oppenheim, Stephen.
Legend -Legend: the Genesis of Civilisation. Rohl, David. Century, 1998.
MYBP- Million Years Before Present.
NF Noah’s Flood. Ryan, William and Pitman, Walter.
OT- Old Testament.
PISOWC - Proceedings of the International Symposium on World Climate 8000-0 BC.
RI- Royal Institution lecture delivered January 1996, BBC2.
SIS-Society for Interdisciplinary Studies, founded 1974 post-Velikovsky.
TAWH-Times Atlas of World History, 1993 .
TCBC They Came Before Columbus. Van Sertima, Ivan.
UV Unauthorized Version. Fox, Robin Lane.
UVD- Ultimate Visual Dictionary.
WBE World Book Encyclopaedia, 1992.
WDP Western Daily Press.
WTSF When The Sky Fell. Rand and Rose Flem-Ath. BCA, 1995.
y or yrs- years.
Allan, D.S. and Delair, J.B. When The Earth Nearly Died. Gateway Books, 1995.
Bible Reader’s Encyclopedia and Concordance. Rev. by W. M. Clow, n.d.
Bryson, Bill. Short History of Nearly Everything. Doubleday, 2003.
Butler, Alan. How To Read Prehistoric Monuments. Watkins, 2011.
Chronology of World History: the Ancient World. H. E. Mellersh, Helicon reissue 1994.
Cox, Simon et al. Archaeology and History of the Former Bryan Brothers Garage Site, Deanery Road...Trans. Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Soctiety, 124 (2006), pp. 55-71.
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs and Steel. Vintage, 1997.
Dunbavin, Paul. The Atlantis Researches. Third Millennium, 1995.
Edwards, I. E. S. Pyramids of Egypt, 3rd r.e. Penguin, 1991.
Feuerbacher, Alan. More Evidence for the Ice Ages. Taken from the Web at www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/6040/flood16htm.
Flem-Ath, Rand and Rose. When the Sky Fell. Orion, 1996.
Fox, Robin Lane. The Unauthorised Version. Viking Penguin, 1991.
Freeman, Gordon R. Hidden Stonehenge. Watkins, 2012.
Galanopoulos, A. G. and Bacon, E. Atlantis, the Truth Behind the Legend. Nelson, 1969.
Gibbins, David. Atlantis. Headline, 2005 (only historical notes used following work of fiction).
Goudie, Andrew. Environmental Change: Contemporary Problems in Geography. Clarendon Press, 1992.
Gould, Stephen Jay. Wonderful Life. Hutchinson Radius, 1990.
Hancock, Underworld: Flooded Kingdoms of the Ice Age, Michael Joseph, 2002.
Bauval, Robert, and Hancock, Keeper of Genesis: Quest for the Hidden Legacy of Mankind. Arrow, 1997.
Hapgood, Charles. Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings: Evidence of Advanced Civilisation in the Ice Age. Chilton Books, 1966.
Hapgood, Charles. Path of the Pole. 1968.
Hurrell, Stephen. Dinosaurs and the Expanding Earth. One Off Publishing, 1994.
Keys, David CDE Catastrophes: the Diluvial Evidence. Palmer,T., Nottingham Trent University, paper presented at SIS...conference....19/9/99.
Kolosimo, Peter. Timeless Earth. Sphere, 1974.
Langdon, Robert John. Prehistoric Britain - The Stonehenge Enigma. ABC Publishing, 2010.
Macdougall, Doug. Frozen Earth: the Once and Future Story of Ice Ages. University of California Press, 2004.
Olson, Steve. Mapping Human History. Bloomsbury, 2002 .
Oppenheim, Stephen. Eden in the East. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1998.
Oppenheimer, Clive. Eruptions That Shook The World. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Proceedings of the International Symposium on World Climate, see Royal Meteorological Society.
Rees, Martin. Just Six Numbers. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1999.
Rohl, David. Legend - the Genesis of Civilisation. Century, 1998.
Ryan, William and Pitman, Walter. Noah's Flood. Touchstone, 2000.
Scarre, Chris (ed). The Human Past. Thames and Hudson, 2005.
Schoch, Robert M. Voices Of The Rocks. Thorsons, 1999.
Siegel, L. Five Worst Extinctions in Earth's history. www.space.com/scienceastronomy/planet earth/extinction.
Singer, S. Fred and Avery, Dennis T. Unstoppable Global Warming. Rowman and Littlefield, 2007 (for Dansgaard hypothesis).
Smith, A. The Weather: The Truth About The Health Of Our Planet. Hutchinson, 2000.
Stringer, Chris. Homo Britannicus: The Incredible Story Of Human Life In Britain. Penguin, 2006.
Taylor, Timothy. The Buried Soul: How Humans Invented Death. Fourth Estate, 2002.
Thompson, Thomas. Bible in History: How Writers Create a Past. Jonathan Cape, 1999.
Ultimate Visual Dictionary. Dorling Kindersley, 1994.
Van Sertima, Ivan. They Came Before Columbus. Random House, 1976.
Velikovsky, I. Worlds In Collision. Gollancz, 1950.
Walker, Frank. The Bristol Region. Nelso, 1972.
Whitcomb, John C. and Morris, Henry M. The Genesis Flood. Baker Book House, 1961.
White, A. J. Monty. How Old Is The Earth? Evangelical Press, 1985.
Whyte, I. World Without End? Environmental Disaster and the Collapse of Empires. I.B. Tauris, 2008.
Wilkinson, John. Probing The New Solar System. CSIRO Publishing, 2008.